Bacteriophage (phage)

A virus that infects bacteria.


The management and analysis of data (especially DNA sequence data) using advanced computing techniques.

Biolistic device

A device that bombards target cells with microscopic DNA-coated particles. Familiarly known as the Gene Gun, it was first developed in the early 1980s.


A cancer producing agent or substance. A variety of chemical agents have been shown to induce malignancy in animals, but not all of them show the same capability in humans.


A group of chemically similar red to yellow pigments responsible for the characteristic color of many plant organs or fruits, such as tomatoes and carrots. Carotenoids serve as light-harvesting molecules in photosynthetic assemblies and also play a role in protecting prokaryotes from the deleterious effects of light.

Cell selection

The process of selecting cells that exhibit specific traits within a group of genetically different cells. Selected cells are often subcultured onto fresh medium for continued selection.

Chitinase gene

A gene responsible for the activity of chitinase, an enzyme that breaks down chitin (a polysaccharide that gives structural strength to the exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi).


Defines both molecular, whole-animal, and plant clones; a collection of genetically identical copies of a gene, cell, or organism.


The propagation of genetically exact duplicates of an organism by a means other than sexual reproduction, for example, the vegetative production of new plants or the propagation of DNA molecules by insertion into plasmids. Often, but inaccurately, used to refer to the propagation of animals by nuclear transfer.


Growth of cultured cells together.


A product that is compared to another product (e.g., a genetically engineered food and a non-genetically engineered food).

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