mittee found that valid science was used when recommendations were made in the past but that future decisions must rely on the use of newer methods and perspectives, particularly the concept of normative flow regimes. The quality of the information upon which decisions are based could be further improved by publishing research findings in peer-reviewed journals or in externally reviewed synthesis volumes to increase accessibility and decrease the reliance on non-peer-reviewed literature. The committee found numerous gaps in knowledge. Addressing them could substantially improve science and management for the river, its human population, and its threatened and endangered species. Those gaps are mostly related to problems of integration of the various lines of scientific investigation, a focus on highly localized rather than more broadly based ecosystem perspectives, a lack of analysis of basinwide connections, a lack of standardized procedures for data collection among government and private agencies, and lack of understanding of the relative cost effectiveness and distributional consequences of alternative conservation measures.