TABLE 3-1 Racial Categories in the U.S. Census, 1790-2000

Year

Category

1790

Free whites, Other free persons, Slaves

1800 and 1810

Free whites; Other free persons, except Indians not taxed; Slaves

1820

Free whites; Slaves; Free colored persons; Other persons, except Indians not taxed

1830 and 1840

Free white persons, Slaves, Free colored persons

1850

White, Black, Mulatto

1860

White, Black, Mulatto, Indian

1870 and 1880

White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, Indian

1890

White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, Indian

1900

White, Black, Chinese, Japanese, Indian

1910

White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

1920

White, Black, Mulatto, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean, Other (plus write-in)

1930

White, Negro, Mexican, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean, Other races (spell out in full)

1940

White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean, Other races (spell out in full)

1950

White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Other race (spell out)

1960

White, Negro, American Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

1970

White, Negro or Black, Indian (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

1980

White, Negro, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Indian (American), Asian Indian, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, Other (specify)

1990

White, Black, Indian (American), Eskimo, Aleut, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Samoan, Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, Other race

2000

White; Black, African American, or Negro; American Indian or Alaska Native (specify tribe); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Other Asian (print race); Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Hawaiian; Guamanian or Chamorro; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander (print race); Some other race (individuals who consider themselves multiracial can choose two or more races)

SOURCE: National Research Council (2004).

The use of these standards was required in all census and survey data collected by the federal government, as well as for federal administrative records and federally sponsored research (OMB, 1977). The standards did not apply to state or private data collection efforts except as required by

   

in that limited sense (to refer only to Hispanic origin) and in a broader sense to refer to other ethnic distinctions.



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