. "Appendix A: Examples of Physiological and Cognitive Markers of Performance." Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance
TABLE A-1 Examples of Metabolic Markers
Tissue, Organ, Function
Cold strain index
Esophageal telemetry device
Galvanic skin response
Physiological strain index
Hydration status from bioelectrical impedance
Total body water
Physical activity/energy expenditure
Activity monitors (integrated, i.e., body movement, heart rate, and core temperature)
Doubly labeled water
Foot-ground contact/body weight
Heart rate monitors
Insulin-like growth factor-1
NOTE: Metabolic monitoring biomarkers can be categorized according to outcome function or intermediate measure that can be quantified to reflect the outcome function. This table summarizes outcome functions of various organs/systems/physiological/ psychological states and some intermediate biomarkers that might be used to predict or quantify these outcome functions and optimal performance. In general, it was felt that no single intermediate biomarker accurately predicts outcome function. Accurate measures of outcome function are often invasive and not applicable to field situations. More emphasis should be placed on developing noninvasive measures that accurately predict peak performance or catastrophic failure of a given organ/system or physiological/psychological state.