TABLE A-1 Examples of Metabolic Markers

Tissue, Organ, Function

Intermediate Marker

Source

Body temperature

Cold strain index

Esophageal telemetry device

Galvanic skin response

Heart rate

Heat flux

Oral temperature

Reaction time

Skin temperature

Physiological strain index

 

Hydration

Aldosterone

Arginine

Blood pressure

Heart rate

Hydration status from bioelectrical impedance

Sodium

Total body water

Vasopressin

Blood

Saliva

Urine

Physical activity/energy expenditure

Accelerometers

Activity logs

Activity monitors (integrated, i.e., body movement, heart rate, and core temperature)

Dietary questionnaires

Doubly labeled water

Foot-ground contact/body weight

Glucose

Heart rate monitors

Insulin

Insulin-like growth factor-1

Lactate

Blood

NOTE: Metabolic monitoring biomarkers can be categorized according to outcome function or intermediate measure that can be quantified to reflect the outcome function. This table summarizes outcome functions of various organs/systems/physiological/ psychological states and some intermediate biomarkers that might be used to predict or quantify these outcome functions and optimal performance. In general, it was felt that no single intermediate biomarker accurately predicts outcome function. Accurate measures of outcome function are often invasive and not applicable to field situations. More emphasis should be placed on developing noninvasive measures that accurately predict peak performance or catastrophic failure of a given organ/system or physiological/psychological state.



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