of the U.S. Army 7th Special Forces Group. Dr. Bistrian was president of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vice-president and president of ASCN, and a member of the board of directors of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology. He served on the editorial boards of numerous nutrition and medical journals and is the author or coauthor of over 400 articles in scientific publications.

John Caldwell, Jr., Ph.D., is the principal research psychologist with the Warfighter Fatigue Countermeasures Program at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has published over 80 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and laboratory technical reports. He frequently lectures at safety briefings and scientific symposia, and he conducts operationally focused workshops on fatigue countermeasures for aviators and industrial personnel. He is a member of the National Sleep Foundation’s Speakers Bureau and Science Advisory Council, and he frequently consults with various organizations on the effects of fatigue on pilots and methods for overcoming the adverse impact of fatigue in the aviation environment. Dr. Caldwell received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology in 1984 from the University of Southern Mississippi. In 1983 he became the assistant director of the Behavioral Medicine Laboratory at Children’s Hospital National Medical Center in Washington, D.C., where he spent 3 years. Afterward, he spent 16 years with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command conducting studies on methods of aviator status monitoring and on the effects of medications on aviator performance in specially instrumented flight simulators and aircraft. In August 2002 he transferred to the Air Force Research Laboratory at Brooks. The focus of his research is to fully understand the effects of sleep deprivation on pilots and to develop monitoring methodologies and fatigue countermeasures for use in the operational aviation environment. Key accomplishments have included the first-ever controlled aviator flight-performance evaluations of the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and modafinil for sustaining performance and the completion of several unique protocols investigating the feasibility of real-time monitoring of aviator physiological activity in flight.

Johanna T.Dwyer, D.Sc., R.D., is director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center and a professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Community Health at the Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy in Boston. She is also a senior scientist at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Dr. Dwyer’s work centers on life-cycle related concerns, such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a long-standing interest in vegetarian and other alternative lifestyles. Dr. Dwyer is currently the editor of Nutrition Today and on the editorial boards of Family Economics and Nutrition Reviews. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and

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