the view, by multiple views, or by time periods of viewing, among many other approaches.

There also can be charges for printing and file usage, as opposed to merely viewing usage. You could allow people to keep local electronic copies for rapid access and local archiving, or there could only be server copies. It is a question of whether you can search the full text or the image only. Bernard Rous mentioned that this is an issue that the ACM has faced as a membership organization. Which services should it provide to the general public, and which enhanced services should it provide to its members in order to induce them to remain members?

What is the role for government revenue? Much of what we are talking about—scientific, technical, and medical information and scholarly research—is information that benefits the general public either directly or indirectly, far beyond the community of scientists and scholars who are using it. There is a public interest in the dissemination of knowledge, in addition to its creation. Of course, governments in most countries are one of the main, if not the main, sources of funding to create the knowledge in the first place—to fund the research. With some exceptions, however, they have not been one of the main providers or direct disseminators of that information. Ultimately, at some level, governments are paying for it through subsidies to universities to pay for the libraries. But there is a question about whether the government should be directly intervening and providing access, or providing the revenues necessary to do the publishing.

There is value in the content itself, as well as in the value-added services that publishers, disseminators, aggregators, and distributors provide. There is thus a question about how different business models might succeed at supporting both aspects of the process, both content creation and distribution, getting incentives to generate the knowledge in the first place and getting reasonable incentives to provide high-quality publication, dissemination, indexing, and abstracting services. Having a particular business model that may address some of those needs, may not address others.

Finally, the overriding question for this entire symposium—much less this session—is: What impact is the digital publishing world going to have on science itself, on the scientific enterprise? For instance, how are the different business models, the different ways that access is provided and structured, going to affect the quality and productivity of science, collaboration at a distance, access for developing countries, the professional review and career process, peer review, and other aspects of scientific research?

COMMENTS BY PANEL PARTICIPANTS

Brian Crawford, John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons is a global, independent publisher, established in 1807. Wiley has three major areas of publishing today: scientific, technical, and medical (STM) journals, higher education materials, and professional and trade information. It is a fairly diversified publishing portfolio, with about $1 billion in annual revenues. The publisher has 400 STM journals online on its InterScience platform, which was established in 1997. It now contains about 2 million pages of information in the sciences, technology, and medicine.

Finding Wiley’s Content Online

Wiley provides open access to its tables of content and abstracts, as a general principle. That is so that its information can be found easily on the Web, either through secondary information services or directly by users who are browsing for such information and coming in directly to the service.

Each journal has its own home page. The reason for that business model is that Wiley publishes on behalf of many learned societies. Wiley wants even those journals that it owns to maintain their own distinct identity online. It also sees the advantage of a rich integration of links to and from related material. HighWire certainly led the way with this, with its toll-free linking capability that they demonstrated with professional societies. Other publishers quickly followed suit. The establishment of



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