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Appendix C EXCERPTS FROM REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT AT THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE APOLLO MOON LANDING JULY 20, 1989 . . . And space is the inescapable challenge to all the advanced nations of the Earth. And there's little question that, in the 21st century, humans will again leave their home planet for voyages of discovery and exploration. What was once improbable is now inevitable. The time has come to look beyond brief encounters. We must commit ourselves anew to a sustained program of manned exploration of the solar system and yesthe permanent settlement of space. We must commit ourselves to a future where Americans and citizens of all nations will live and work in space.... And our goal is nothing less than to establish the United States as the preeminent spacefaring nation. Today we don't have a crisis. We have an opportunity. ~ seize this opportunity, I'm not proposing a 10-year plan like Apollo. I'm proposing a long-range, continuing commitment. First, for the coming decade for the 1990's Space Station Freedom our critical next step in all our space endeavors. 61

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62 APPENDIX C And next for the new century back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow a journey to another planet a manned mission to Mars. Each mission should- and will lay the groundwork for the next. . . . And today I'm asking my right hand man, our able Vice President, Dan Quayle, to lead the National Space Council in determining specifically what's needed for the next round of exploration the necessary money, manpower, and material the feasibility of international cooperation and develop realistic timetables, milestones along the way. The Space Council will report back to me as soon as possible with concrete recommendations to chart a new and continuing course to the Moon and Mars and beyond. EXCERPTS FROM THE NATIONAL SPACE POLICY (EMPHASES ADDED) NOVEMBER 2, 1989 . . . The overall goals of the United States space activities are: (1) to strengthen the security of the United States; (2) to obtain scientific, technological and economic benefits for the general population and to improve the quality of life on Earth through space-related activities; (3) to encourage continuing United States private-sector investment in space and related activities; (4) to promote international cooperative activities taking into account United States national security, foreign policy, scientific, and economic interests; (5) to cooperate with other nations in maintaining the freedom of space for all activities that enhance the security and welfare of mankind; and as a long-range goal, (6) to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. . . . The objectives of the United States civil space activities shall be (1) to expand knowledge of the Earth, its environment, the solar system, and the universe; (2) to create new opportunities for use of the space environ- ment through the conduct of appropriate research and experimentation in advanced technology and systems; (3) to develop space technology for civil applications and, wherever appropriate, make such technology available to the commercial sector; (4) to preserve the United States preeminence in critical aspects of space science, applications, technology, and manned space flight; (Sj to establish a permanently manned presence in space; and (6) to engage in international cooperative efforts that further United States overall space goals.

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APPENDIX C CIVIL SPACE SECTOR GUIDELINES Space E'cplorai'on 63 Human Exploration. 1b implement the long-range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system, NASA will continue the systematic development of technologies necessary to enable and support a range of future manned missions. This technology program (Pathfinder) will be oriented toward a Presidential decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned Exploration. NASA will continue to pursue a program of unmanned exploration where such exploration can most efficiently and ef- fectively satisfy national space objectives by, among other things: achieving scientific objectives where human presence is undesirable or unnecessary; exploring realms where the risks or costs of life support are unacceptable; and providing data vital to support future manned missions. Permanent Manned Presence. NASA will develop the Space Station to achieve permanently manned operational capability by the mid-199Os. Space Station Freedom will: (1) Contribute to United States preeminence in critical aspects of manned spaceflight; (2) provide support and stability to scientific and technological investigations; (3) provide early benefits, particularly in the materials and life sciences; (4) promote private sector experimentation preparatory to independent commercial activity; (5) allow evolution in keeping with the needs of Station users and the long-term goals of the United States; (6) provide opportunities for commercial sector participation; and (7) contribute to the longer term goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.

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