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- RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE NATIONAL MAPPING DIVISION, USGS: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this study by the Mapping Science Committee was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey under agreements 14~8 0001-A0693 and 14{~8 0001-A0822. Available from Board on Earth Sciences and Resources National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE JOHN D. BOSSIER, Ohio State University, Chairman (since March 1990) THOMAS C. FINNIE,* Consultant, Gilbertsville, Kentucky, Chainnan (through February 1990) JOHN C. ANTENUCCI, PlanGraphics, Inc. LAWRENCE F. AYERS,+ Intergraph Corporation ROBERT CHARTRAND,+ Naples, Florida DONALD F. COOKE,+ Geographic Data Technology, Inc. DAVID J. COWEN, University of South Carolina JOHN E. ESTES, University of California, Santa Barbara CLIFFORD GREVE,+ Autometrics, Inc. ROBERT D. JOHNSON,* Petroleum Information, Inc. GIULIO MARTINI,+ TYDAC Technologies, Inc. JOHN D. MCLAUGHLIN,+ University of New Brunswick BERNARD J. NIEMANN, JR.,+ University of Wisconsin, Madison BARBARA B. PETCHENIK, R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company GERARD RUSHTON,+ University of Iowa HOWARD J. SIMKOWITZ,+ Caliper Corporation HUGO F. THOMAS,* Connecticut Natural Resources Center C. DANA TOMLIN,* Harvard University and Ohio State University ROBERT TUFTS,+ The Analytical Science Corporation THOMAS J. WILBANKS,* Oak Ridge National Laboratories NRC Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN U.S. Geological Survey Liaison Representatives JOEL L. MORRISON LOWELL E. STARR *Term ended February 1990 +Term began March 1990 - ~ 111

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Co-Chaim'an BRIAN J. SKINNER, Yale University, Co-Chairman SAMUEL S. ADAMS, Colorado School of Mines KEIITI AKI, University of Southern California ALBERT W. BALLY, Rice University JAMES R. BAROFFIO, Chevron Canada Resources Ltd. SANDRA L. BLACKSTONE, University of Denver DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley GORDON P. EATON, Iowa State University W. GARY ERNST, Stanford University ROBERT N. GINSBURG, University of Miami ALEXANDER F.H. GOETZ, University of Colorado PRISCILLA C. GREW, Minnesota Geological Survey PERRY HAGENSTEIN, Resource Issues, Inc. HARRISON C. JAMISON, Consultant, Sunriver, Oregon THOMAS H. JORDAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHARLES J. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey CAREL OTTE, JR., Unocal Corporation FRANK M. RICHTER, University of Chicago JJ. SIMMONS III, Interstate Commerce Commission STEVEN M. STANLEY, Case Western Reserve University IRAN L. WHITE, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Staff KEVIN C. BURKE, Staff Director THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Scientist LALLY A. ANDERSON, Staff Associate GAYLENE DUMOUCHEL, Administrative Assistant BARBARA WRIGHT, Administrative Secretary 1V 1

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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Chairman ROBERT C. BEARDSLEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution B. CLARK BURCHFIEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RALPH J. CICERONE, University of California, Irvine PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HELEN M. INGRAM, University of Arizona GENE E. LIKENS, New York Botanical Garden SYUKURO MANABE, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University PHILIP A. PALMER, E.I. duPont de Nemours & Company FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University DUNCAN T. FATTEN, Arizona State University MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Allied Signal Aerospace Company LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN M. STANLEY, Case Western Reserve University SIR CRISPIN TICKELL, Green College at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University IRVIN L. WHITE, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority JAMES H. ZUMBERGE, University of Southern California STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director JANICE E. GREENE, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Financial Officer CARLITA PERRY, Administrative Assistant v

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PREFACE Upon request of the director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Mapping Science Committee was established in 1987 to provide guidance to the USGS on mapping and geography issues. In the request, the suggested initial charges to the committee were as follows: 1. Examine the needs for the geographic and cartographic data provided by the USGS. Do the Surveys current mapping activities and products adequately address these needs? 2. Examine and advise on USGS programs of research and development of hardware and software for original data acquisition, processing, storing, marketing, and distribution of digital cartographic data and synthesized information products to the user community. 3. Examine the scope and content of the USGS's activities in geographic information systems (GIS) and recommend their role in assembling and maintaining digital data bases from within the USGS and from other sources. 4. Respond to specific requests for guidance on mapping and geography. The committee issued a report, Spatial Data Needs: The Future of the National Mapping Program, in January 1990, which specifically addressed the first and third of these charges and provided general guidance on the second. This report is directed toward the second charge concentrating on the research and development (R&D) activities within the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD). . V11 1

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The committee was briefed on the R&D components within NMD during its meetings between July 1987 and April 1989; these meetings, however, focused more on the issues presented in the committee's previous report. The USGS briefed the committee on its R&D activities at a meeting in November 1989, and additional materials and plans were provided subsequently by the USGS. The committee wishes to thank staff of the National Mapping Division, who contributed information for its deliberations. ~. V111 i ~ ..

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCE ION 2 CURRENT R&D PLANS IN NMD Developmental Plans and Activities, 8 The Mark-II System, 8 Product Generation, 11 Standards Development, 12 Rules Development, 14 Technology Transfer, 14 DLG-E Development, 15 NMD Research Initiatives, 16 Models of Digital Spatial Data, 17 Techniques Research, 19 Remote Sensing and Image Processing, 20 Thematic Mapping, 21 Data Applications Research, 21 Global Change Research, 23 IX 1 4 8 .

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RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES Data Capture, Revision, and Maintenance, 26 Data Base Organization, 31 Spatial Data Display, 32 Applications, 33 Decision Support Systems, 33 Global Change Research: An Example of Spatial Data Applications, 35 Research Opportunities: Conclusions, 36 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations, 39 1. Research Agenda, 39 2. External Relationships, 39 3. Technological Flenabili~, 41 4. Standards, 41 5. Non-standard Products, 42 Conclusions, 42 REFERENCES ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIXES A Research Projects in NMD, 47 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, 57 x 25 38 43 44