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4 Relationship of the Defense Mapping Agency to Civilian Agencies 4.1 BACKGROUND Military and civilian mapping, charting, and geodesy programs are closely re- lated and, though one serves national security and the other national develop- ment and their priorities and emphases differ, their products and services are similar and often identical. The relationships between federal military and civilian mapping, charting, and geodesy (MC&G) agencies are documented in legislation and in interdepartmental and interagency agreements. Since the establishment of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) in 1972, interagency contacts and cooperation between DMA and the civilian agencies have been simplified and appear to be operating more easily and effectively. 4.2 DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY EXPERIENCE Before the formation of the DMA in 1972 the mapping, charting, and geo- detic groups within the Department of Defense (DOD) exhibited many of the problems now evident in the federal civilian agencies. The MC&G resources were spread among the military departments; facilities and capabilities were unnecessarily duplicated; the coordination of programs and technology was hampered by organization separation and lack of clear direction; serious deficiencies existed in meeting defense requirements for MC&G products; and resources for MC&G activities were being reduced within the military department budgets. Various management techniques, short of consolidation into a single agency, were tried to reverse these trends, but none was com- pletely effective. 46 ;

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Relationship of the Defense Mapping Agency to Civilian Agencies 47 MC&G products and services were freely exchanged between the military services. For example, Air Force aeronautical charts were often in greater demand by the Army and aerial surveys by the Air Force and the Navy. Geo- detic surveys by the Army were used by all three services. This resulted in each military department controlling resource allocations and production policy for items of critical importance to another service. To resolve this problem the Photographic and Survey Branch of the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was established, but this Branch did not have sufficient management authority. The functions of this Branch were transferred to the Defense Intel- ligence Agency, in 1961 at the time of its establishment, and more specific responsibilities, including validation of requirements, product specification control, and program management, were added. However, a 1970 DOD study found that this arrangement was unsatisfactory since it did not provide con- trol and direction over personnel and financial resources. The study recom- mended formation of a single military mapping organization. Further study led to the 1971 decision to establish the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). This agency consolidated 80 percent of the DOD MC&G resources (8500 personnel and $305 million in fiscal year 1980~. Those elements not included in DMAmainly the hydrographic survey elements assigned to the Navy and the topographic troop units assigned to tactical commandersare responsive to the program management of the DMA Director. Over the 4 years prior to the formation of the DMA, MC&G personnel and budget were reduced by more than one fourth, even though the department resource managers had been advised of serious deficiencies in meeting national defense requirements. These out-of-proportion reductions were due to the MC&G programs being organizationally submerged in each of the military departments, where it did not receive significant visibility. Within its first 3 years, the DMA achieved $36 million in savings through consolidations, standardization of procedures, and other management and technological improvements and reinvested these savings to increase produc- tivity 18 percent. Improvements continue to be made. In addition, the DMA now presents its overall resource requirements for national defense directly to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Office of Management and Bud- get, and the Congress. The result has been that the more-critical requirements have received budgetary support. Consolidation has resulted in needs being handled in order of pnority, in greater quantity, and in faster response time to users. The DMA is able to focus timely attention on emerging MC&G require- ments; today, 60 percent of its resources are used to produce digital and other nongraphical products for trainer/simulators and weapon-systems guid- ance as compared with approximately 35 percent at the time the DMA was formed. The flexible reprogramming of resources, procurement of common equipment and software for the production centers, and standardization of

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48 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW the work force have enabled the DMA to respond to the rapid growth in re- quirements for digital products. Further benefits resulted from DMA'S ability to establish digital data standards to which the users must conform, thus avoiding the cost of data-base proliferation. 4.3 GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS In general, the DMA has responsibility for providing the maps, charts, and re- lated materials, including geodetic, geophysical, and terrain data, required by the armed forces and other national security organizations. For areas of the United States and its territories, the DMA largely depends on products and services of the civilian MC&G agencies, producing coverage in these areas only when civilian-agency production cannot be responsive. Since many foreign areas of national security interest are not accessible to DMA personnel for conventional surveying and mapping operations, the DMA supports an aggressive advanced technology program. Technology and data from this program of use to the civilian agency programs are carefully reviewed and transferred under procedures initiated by the Office of Management and Budget some 15 years ago. These include periodic technical exchange meet- ings and demonstrations for key officials of all federal MC&G agencies. The DMA maintains working relationships and data exchange with many foreign government MC&G agencies. Since production problems faced by many of these agencies parallel those of civilian agencies, the DMA depends on the civil agencies to provide a part of the technical training furnished under these agreements. 4.4 CURRENT INTERACTIONS The DMA interacts with the federal civilian agencies on topographic mapping, hydrographic and aeronautical charting, geodesy and geophysics, data li- braries, digital data files and formats, research and development, and mobili- zation. Requirements for military mapping of the territorial area of the United States, at scales of 1 :24,000, 1:50,000, and 1:250,000, are included in the programs and budgets of the Geological Survey (GS). Special military maps are occasionally produced by the GS, sometimes with the assistance of the DMA. Those maps of the United States produced by the DMA are distributed through the G S. The DMA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Survey (NOAA/NOS), and the Federal Aviation Administration, through the Inter-Agency Air Cartographic Committee, develop specifications

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Relationship of the Defense Mapping Agency to civilian Agencies 49 for joint-use charts and air information publications. For most charts and air information publications, separate military and civilian versions are required to fit the different operating environment. The DMA modifies the NOS civil edition reproducibles for its printings of U.S. area charts and air information publications, thus keeping DMA'S activities in these areas to a minimum. NOS distributes any unique DMA air-chart publications. NOAA/NOS produces the standard hydrographic charts for U.S. waters, and the DMA produces charts for the oceans; by statute, the DMA is responsi- ble for the distribution of charts for non-U.S. waters to civilian maritime users. The DMA (Hydrographic/Topographic Center~andNOAA (NOS)repre- sent the United States in the International Hydrographic Bureau, which fos- ters international standardization and exchange of sea navigation data. The DOD/NaVy, DMA, and NOAA/NOS have formal coordination procedures, and the Oceanographer of the Navy maintains a full-time staff officer in the office of the NOAA Administrator. The NOS and the DMA operate separate public chart-distribution systems but collaborate on procedures and pricing. The DMA depends on the geodetic and geophysical data (principally grav- ity and magnetic data) available from NOS programs for U.S. areas. The DMA carries out limited geodetic surveys in the United States, which are coordi- nated through the Federal Geodetic Control Committee, pnocipally in con- nection with ICBM sites or weapons and system development, test, and cali- bration. The DMA has developed and operated systems for worldwide collec- tion of data, has organized the data into libraries, and transforms the data into reference systems to meet weapon-systems needs. The DMA data appli- cable to U.S. areas are continuously reviewed for security classification and released to libraries operated by civilian agencies. NASA, NOAA, and the DMA participate in the Satellite Geodesy Applica- tions Board, developing and operating national geodetic satellite programs. Federal civilian agencies as well as the public utilize the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NAVSAT) operated by the DOD and are expected to have access to the DOD Global Positioning System for civilian geodetic positioning when it becomes available in the late-1980's. The DMA maintains worldwide MC&G data libraries. Over the past 15 years, major parts of the U.S. data library have been discontinued or trans- ferred to federal civilian agencies. The geodetic control and gravimetric data files of the United States have been transferred to NOS, and the development, by the GS, of the National Cartographic Information Center has been encour- aged. The DMA maintains the foreign geographic names file and provides staff support to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for foreign areas. The U.S. geographic names file is maintained by the GS. The digital terrain data for U.S. areas, initiated by the DMA, have been transferred to the GS, where they are maintained for joint civilian-military

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50 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORG~IZATIONAL REVIEW use. The rapid growth in civilian and military applications for digital carto- graphic data as well as the increased use of computer systems in photogram- metric and cartographic processes is generating large digital data files. The GS, NOS, and DMA are working toward standardization in data file formats to simplify cross-utilization of data files and to ensure rapid response in emer- gencies. In addition to the periodic technical exchange programs for key MC&G of- ficials of the DMA and the civilian agencies noted in Section 4.3, the GS, NOS, and DMA have formal agreements for cooperation in research and development. These provide for regular briefings on program plans and status and encourage cooperation at each phase of any project. Joint funding and joint working groups are other features. The three agencies recently agreed to procurement of identical production systems unless serious operating prob- lems make a specific system impractical for any of them. As the technical complexity of systems continues to grow, the ability to exchange data and products at all phases of the MC&G process can be adversely affected by sys- tem differences. The three agencies have also agreed to regular exchange as- si~ment of technical staff to improve the transfer of ideas and information and to assure greater general awareness of the full scope of federal MC&G activities. 4.5 1973 REPORT RECOMMENDATIONS APPLICABLE TO THE DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY In general, the 1973 report recommendations would continue the basic rela- tionships currently existing between the DMA and the civilian mapping com- munity, except that, if there were a consolidated surveying and mapping ad- ministration, the multiple interactions described in Section 4.4 would reduce to a single interaction. Some of the recommendations, particularly those applicable to release of classified gravity, bathymetric and similar data, and technology exchange in mapping, charting, and research and development, identified need for in- creased coordination. Considerable progress has been made since the 1973 report (see Section 2.2.3~. The conclusion of the 1973 report that independent civilian and military agencies are in the nation's best interest is still considered to be valid. A case can probably be made for increased operating efficiencies through consolida- tion in some production operations. Any cost savings identified, however, would be heavily outweighed by the importance of maintaining separate and positive control over program priorities to assure support for the two widely differing national requirements.

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Relationship of the Defense Mapping Agency to Civilian Agencies 51 4.6 INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY AND A SINGLE CIVILIAN AGENCY The separation between military and civilian agency activities is well defined, and cooperation appears to be working well but is subject to extenuating circumstances at any given time. Some areas, for example, hydrographic sur- veying, charting, and chart distribution, probably need further review to determine areas where adjustments, such as joint civil-military operations, may be desirable. Other minor adjustments would undoubtedly result in addi- tional efficiency. Obviously this can be more easily accomplished if the DMA could interact with a single civilian surveying and mapping agency. The DMA is heavily dependent on the civilian mapping community for MC&G products and services to meet national security requirements for U.S. areas. The extent and quality of this support can be significantly improved by the increased emphasis, efficiency, and interactive effectiveness that can be expected from the establishment of a civilian Federal Surveying and Mapping Administration .