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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 The principal civilian surveying and mapping agenciesthe Geological Survey, National Ocean Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Bureau of Land Managementwere requested by the Panel to report on the following four items: 1. Progress on the recommendations made in the Federal Mapping Task Force (FMTF) report, 2. Areas in which lack of progress is particularly evident, 3. Areas of interest missing from the FMTF report, and 4. Sections of the FMTF report that should be revised (or updated). The responses have been used in preparing this chapter. Through informal discussions with representatives from each agency, it was clearly established that, though the principal recommendation in the FMTF report has not been achieved, the report has been useful in support of program initiatives and the associated requests for resources. The progress made by the agencies in re- sponse to specific recommendations in the FMTF report confirms this evalua- tion. When commenting on the difficulties encountered in responding to the 1973 Task Force recommendations, none of the agencies addressed the prin- cipal recommendation, that is, the formation of a single civilian agency. In each of the four major civilian agencies, the surveying and mapping activities are not the primary concerns of the parent organization. Thus, this Panel con- cludes that the agencies consider this recommendation for a single agency to 6 .

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 7 be beyond the scope of their primary responsibility. The resolution of such a recommendation involves high-level executive direction more than technical direction. The solution should be achieved by the Executive Branch of the government. We believe that the combined magnitude, importance, and com- plexity of the existing services as spread through the venous agencies meets greater attention and more effective coordination by the Office of Manage- ment and Budget. Such action could be the first step toward achieving the goal of a strong central civilian agency. The benefits derived from the consoli- dation of the mapping, charting, and geodetic activities within the Depart- ment of Defense in 1972 to form the Defense Mapping Agency serve as justi- fication for the support of this principal recommendation (see Chapter 4~. 2.1 SUMMARY OF THE 1973 REPORT The Federal Mapping Task Force was established by the Office of Manage- ment and Budget in 1971 to study civilian mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying requirements, operations, products, and methods. This activity fol- lowed shortly after the consolidation of Department of Defense surveying and mapping activities into the Defense Mapping Agency. It has been nearly 40 years since the last major study of federal activities in the mapping and surveying area. At that time, the study found a disturbing proliferation and duplication of activities among many agencies. (Previous studies are listed in Appendix B.) Since the time of the last study, this problem has been com- pounded and a new generation of problems has created additional pressures with the resultant increase in duplication of activity and, perhaps more im- portantly, further lag in services relating to coverage and timeliness. The 1973 Task Force was asked by the Office of Management and Budget to Determine federal expenditures for mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying activities and to comment on how best to use these resources in accomplishing overall objectives. Identify requirements and comment on their validity as well as the ade- quacy of programs to meet them. Investigate management and program improvements to increase the re- sponsiveness to user needs as well as to improve efficiency and economy of operations. Identify and recommend the uses of advanced technology in civilian mapping, charting, and geodetic activities. Formulate a comprehensive national program efficiently and effective- ly to meet the present and future needs and recommend an organizational structure best suited for conducting these operations. . .~ :~

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8 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW The 1973 Task Force found that 39 federal agencies spent about $305 million for domestic mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying activities in fiscal year 1972. Less than one third of this effort, approximately $90 mil- lion, was spent by the two primary civilian mapping agencies, the Geological Survey and the National Ocean Survey. About $50 million of the total was found to be funded by agencies such as the Department of Housing and Ur- ban Development, the Federal Highway Administration, and the National Science Foundation in the form of grants and contracts. The remaining approximately $165 million was spent by some 34 agencieseither in-house or through contract for a variety of activities. The activities were dispersed among 7 departments and 11 independent agencies. The operating elements were scattered across the nation, in 130 offices and many smaller installations. On the question of how well the community was doing the job of putting together a national program, the Task Force concluded that there was no one in charge and that proliferation continues. There was some coordination of ac- tivities, but generally there was overlap, agency competition, and some fairly serious shortcomings with respect to meeting important national needs. It was concluded that Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-16 (see Appendix C), issued to overcome some of these problems, had only been par- tially successful. The lead agencies, the Geological Survey and the National Ocean Suney, were not given a clear mandate to search for and identify dup- lication nor sufficient authority to influence other agencies' programs. The Task Force found that the research and development effort in the civilian agencies was small and fragmented with insufficient resources to address cur- rent and pressing problems. They further noted that advanced technology, de- veloped by the Department of Defense, had not been fully exploited and that significant advantages could be realized if this step were taken. With respect to user requirements, the Task Force was concerned that no mechanism existed in the civilian community for the orderly review, identification, and validation of user needs. They identified several areas of deficiency with re- spect to coverage, availability of products and data, adequacy of existing products, and programs. Some of the significant program deficiencies had to do with the need for a national urban surveying and mapping program, the need to create a central data and information service, and, for the future, the need to understand and deal with the matter of digital cartography. Many program recommendations were offered to enhance the efficiency of operations to better meet national needs. Significant related recommenda- tions included the following: . The need to adjust and upgrade the National Honzontal Geodetic Net. The opportunity to build a truly multipurpose network in Alaska by coordinating cadastral, geodetic, and mapping surveys.

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 9 The need to increase vertical control activities significantly to meet cur- rently identified and future requirements. The need to coordinate facility, cadastral, geodetic, and mapping con- trol surveys with the objective of building a truly national multipurpose con- trol system. The requirement for the establishment of a national urban mapping and surveying program to bring together many uncoordinated and sometimes in- adequate activities. o The need to increase the availability and to upgrade the currency, cov- erage, and content of topographic maps and to build more flexibility into the national mapping program. The need to coordinate several mapping programs of various agencies and to develop a national multipurpose intermediate-scale product. In the technical area, the Task Force made several recommendations in each of the functional areas of surveying and mapping. Significant related rec- ommendations included: The need to use Department of Defense advanced technology in the civ- ilian communities and the subsequent requirement for a central civilian focal point to assure that the technology was made available. That data from the Department of Defense be declassified and made available conveniently to the civilian communityespecially bathymetric and gravity information. The creation of a national photography data base and the establishment of a mechanism to assemble, review, coordinate, and validate civilian agency photo requirements. The establishment of a common reference system (standards and speci- fications for using and displaying spatial data and coordinating the develop- ment of information systems related to this area). Consolidation of research and development activities within the civilian community and the establishment of a formal agreement with the Defense Mapping Agency whereby joint Department of Defense-civilian research and development projects can be carried out. The Task Force made many organizational, technical, and program-related recommendations with regard to the effective, efficient, and economical oper- ation of civilian mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying activities, but the principal recommendation had to do with the creation of a central civilian surveying and mapping agency. As proposed, the agency would have well- def~ned authority to manage and coordinate the activities of the entire civil- ian federal surveying and mapping community. Basic national programs and

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10 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW activities that are potentially systematic and multipurpose would be trans- ferred intact to form the nucleus of a new agency. The Task Force believed that the agency should be of size and scope commensurate with the magni- tude, importance, and complexity of the job and must be given sufficient au- thority to coordinate those activities outside national programs. Such an orga- nization could give needed leadership and assure flexibility to meet current needs as well as new needs as they are identified. 2.2 PROGRESS TOWARD ACHIEVING FEDERAL MAPPING TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS 2.2.1 Honzontal Control The first section of the 1973 report, Land Surveys, includes recommenda- tions directed toward the national geodetic networks. The primary emphases and thrusts point toward the need for a new horizontal control network that is properly referenced and supported by both geodetic satellite observations and a precise transcontinental electronically measured traverse network. To support this effort further and to maximize the benefits, recommendations were made for the expansion of the data base to include "selective control of less than second-order accuracy," the continuance of cooperative programs when practical, and the transfer from other agencies of "funds which are now expended . . . for control surveys of unknown quality and reusability." The National Geodetic Survey responded by initiating, in fiscal year 1974, a project for the new adjustment that involved geodetic agencies of Canada, Mexico, and Denmark (for the network on Greenland). The time for comple- tion had to be extended from the recommended 5 years to 8 years because of a stretching out of resources, which will delay completion to 1983. The re- sources for the U.S. portion of this continental adjustment are provided pri- marily through redirected program funds augmented by a program increase of $750,000 per year. Assistance is being provided by the Geological Survey for the development of the data base, and there has not been any other infusion of new or reprogrammed funds. The project has been enhanced by additional geodetic Doppler satellite positioning and horizontal control surveys performed in cooperation with the Department of Defense, the Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Land Manage- ment, and state and local agencies. However, there is concern about remaining on schedule owing to a change of the primary computer system, with associ- ated software conversion problems, and to administrative personnel ceiling policies. Nevertheless, we believe that the recommendation in the report Geodesy: Trends and Prospects (Committee on Geodesy, 1978), which en-

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 11 couraged the early completion of the new adjustment is still valid, and we concur with that recommendation. Substantial progress has been made toward the expansion of the geodetic horizontal control data base to include third-order control (Federal Geodetic Control Committee, 1974;1980~. We recommend that the horizontal reference data base be completed as soon as practical, that the data base be made readily accessible to all national users, and that the data base be made an integral part of a consolidated na- tional mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and multipurpose cadastre in- formation system. Furthermore, we recommend that all surreys of third order and higher be monumented and described for inclusion in the national geodetic data base. 2.2.2 Vertical Control The 1973 Task Force recommended "doubling the national vertical control program" and suggested that some of the additional funds be secured "by better coordination of surveys that are now singe purpose ($400,000) and by reallocating $800,000 from other federal land-survey programs." The Task Force, recognizing the geodynamic aspects of the problems related to main- taining an accurate vertical control network, proposed that primary lines be releveled on a 10- to 30-year cycle, depending on area needs. They found that "about half of the bench marks established more than 30 years ago are lost"; that is, have been destroyed by man or nature. In 1975, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), in response to the recom- mendations of the 1973 Task Force and in recognition of the deficiencies in the existing vertical network, proposed a new vertical control network. Dur- ing the past 5 years there has been a significant increase in the support of this program. Other federal agencies, working through the Federal Geodetic Con- trol Committee, have upgraded surveying techniques to national network accuracy standards. However, no federal land survey program funding has been reallocated as suggested in the 1973 recommendation. In fiscal year 1978 the vertical control program of NGS was increased by $2.6 million per year, resulting in a total of approximately $3.3 million per year for leveling. In 1980, the program was extended from a 7-year to a 9-year effort, with an estimated completion date of 1987, in order to achieve com- patability with the schedules of the other North American countries and to account for the increased cost resulting from inflation. The program calls for releveling selected lines, 110,000 kilometers, of the primary network and a new adjustment of the total network of approximately 500,000 benchmarks. This international geodetic project involves geodesists from Canada, Mexico, Central America, Denmark, and the United States.

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12 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW The new leveling must give consideration to the various tidal datums, the International Great Lakes Water Levels Datum, the seaward boundary prob- lems, the ocean geoid, and other measurements related to the surface of the sea. In addition, the new leveling will aid in monitoring regions of crustal movement, such as areas of subsidence caused by the withdrawal of water, petroleum, gas, or other materials, and areas of postglacial rebound or tec- tonic uplift due to geothermal causes. This Panel concurs with earlier recommendations that the National Geo- detic Survey continue with its program for a new vertical control network. 2.2.3 Gravity Gravity in the Task Force report was included under Geophysical/Geological Surveys and Mapping, and the recommendations dealt with data classifica- tion, marine geophysical survey and mapping programs, and the planning and coordination of federal activities in marine science and engineering. Satisfac- tory progress has been made and continues, in response to the FMTF, on the declassification and release of gravity data by the Department of Defense to the civilian community. The Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have used classified gravity data for various studies and have been authorized to publish unclassified contour maps of these data at scales of 1:250,000 and smaller. The Defense Mapping Agency, the Geological Survey, and the National Geodetic Survey are cooperating in the preparation of gravity anomaly maps for the United States and North America. These maps will be based on data holdings in the gravity libraries of the federal agencies, in the archives of Mexican and Canadian authorities, and in the private sector. This effort is being coordinated through the Gravity Anomaly Map Committee of the So- ciety of Exploration Geophysicists. 2.2.4 Aerotriangulation The 1973 Task Force recognized the potential of "fully advanced aerotriangu- lation techniques" for a multipurpose survey. The Geological Survey's major effort to develop such a capability was for mapping in Alaska. Because of the urgency for the National Petroleum ReserveAlaska, mapping time was not available for acquiring additional or reliable map control in the field nor for taking new photography. The additional control points needed for bridging Air Force mapping photography were established by aerotriangulation using the DMA multistation analytical triangulation (MUSAT) program to adjust observations and to analyze errors in the ground control. The points estab- lished from this adjustment were used with the GIANT (a version of MUSAT) i: .

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 13 aerotriangulation computer program to establish pass points with the Air Force photography and thus establish control for about 55,000 square kilometers. The photograrnmetric group within the National Ocean Survey has per- fected the use of analytical aerotriangulation for establishing survey control. After the completion of a major test project near Casa Grande, New Mexico, the group undertook a project for Ada County, Idaho, which provided coordi- nates meeting geodetic standards for more than 300 control points. All Bu- reau of Land Management section corners in the area are included. The proj- ect is multipurposegeodetic, cadastral, and large-scale mapping photography. 2.2.5 Mapping The formation of the National Mapping Division was implemented by the Geological Survey in 1980, which resulted in the consolidation of the former Topographic Division, the former Publications Division, and the former Geog- raphy Program of the Land Information and Analysis Office. The new Na- tional Mapping Division (see Appendix A.1) comprises four regional Mapping Centers; a Printing and Distribution Center with regional staffing and activi- ties; and three staff support offices of Plans and Operations, Research, and Information and Data Services. This reorganization represents a major under- taking by the Geological Survey to consolidate its internal surveying and map- ping programs and activities. The 1973 Task Force recommended that the Geological Survey dramati- cally expand the use of advanced technology for interim revision operations in the National Mapping Program. The Geological Survey has changed the term "interim revision" to "photorevision," which more accurately defines the type of revision used to update the existing maps. Considerable effort has been expended to provide the equipment and advanced techniques needed. A greater effort will be required. The National Mapping Program is making ex- tensive use of special source materials to expedite the photorevision process. An additional facility has been established at the Mid-Continent Mapping Center to handle special source materials, and this will expand the map revi- sion capability of the organization. The concept of a National Mapping Program, consisting of various inter- related components as recommended in the FMTF report, has been embraced by the Geological Survey. Department of Interior directives have been issued defining the program and setting out operational procedures within the De- partment. The National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC) was estab- lished in 1974. Fourteen federal agencies have entered formal agreements to provide the NCIC with information regarding their data, and 11 states have become NC~C affiliates. I, l

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14 FEDERAL SURVEYING AD MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW The Geological Survey is now producing orthophotomaps for about 575,000 square kilometers per year (compared with about 150,000 square kilometers of the new 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps). These orthophoto- maps have been prepared for those areas yet unmapped at 1:24,000 scale and in areas identified to support programs of other federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Soil Con- servation Service. The objective to provide orthophotoquads of all unmapped areas of the United States has essentially been accomplished, except in a few scattered areas. 2.2.6 Cartographic Data Base The recommendation for the development of a cartographic data base has had strong support within the Department of the Interior. In response to an initial request for fiscal year 1979, the Geological Suney's budget was increased by $2 million per year for digital data production. The initial phases of this pro- gram included the acquisition of special equipment and the development of new techniques. Digital elevation models were produced as part of the ortho- photo program, and other digital data were to be collected during the new mapping production process. The demands by both federal and state agencies for digital cartographic information systems are increasing rapidly. When adequately funded, the Geological Survey intends, as a long-term goal, to provide cartographic data in digital form for all of the United States, to maintain a national digital data base, and to offer digital service to other agencies. In support of further developing a national multipurpose Digital Carto- graphic Data Base (DCDB), studies and assessments continue to be under- taken that focus on this issue. The three most recent investigations are (1) an Office of Management and Budget questionnaire to federal agencies inquiring about agency requirements for a DCDB; (2) a Geological Survey cost-benefit study to support an appropriation issue paper for the fiscal year 1982 budget; and (3) a study by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (of the Exec- utive Branch), to assess the need for a centralized DCDB (Donelson, 1980~. The fiscal year 1982 budget includes a request for $6.034 million for the U.S. Department of the Interior for a digital cartography program. The re- quest also stipulates that legislation be proposed to establish a revolving fund that Frill finance the program. It is expected that amounts charged for digital cartographic products by the Geological Survey will eventually be the pri- mary revenue source for the fund. The Geological Survey has been requested to operate the digital carto- graphic program on a sound financial basis. The agency plans to fund a mar- keting, pricing, and capital investment study under contract to a private con- sulting group. To coordinate federal digital cartographic data further, an OMB

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 15 Circular is being prepared that will assign the responsibility for this coordina- tion to the Geological Survey. We endorse the effort of the Geological Survey for the development of this digital cartographic data base and strongly recommend that adequate support for this data base be provided. 2.2.7 Nautical and Aeronautical Charting The FMTF review of the hydrographic surveying activities of the federal agen- cies primarily recommended increased use of automated techniques for data collection and processing. The Task Force believed that a more efficient and effective schedule for chart production could be achieved and that the invest- ment costs would yield significant savings and net cost avoidance. The National Ocean Survey (NOS) has made significant progress toward achieving the goal of a fully automated system for nautical charting. Under data acquisition and processing there has been a 30 percent improvement in the efficiency of hydrographic surveying. Twenty-two systems, known as HYDROPLOT, have been instaDed on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ships and survey launches. HYDROPLOT systems have also been installed on some Corps of Engineer survey launches. Modem computer/plotter and digitizing systems have been installed at both the At- lantic and Pacific Marine Centers of the NOS. The annual output from these centers has doubled. The survey data, in digital format, are entered into the Nautical Charting System Data Bank. The digitizing of all earlier survey rec- ords and chart information should be completed by fiscal year 1984. Copies of the hydrographic data on magnetic tape are forwarded to NOAA'S Envi- ronmental Data Information Service Center in Boulder, Colorado, for distri- bution to the public. The system also provides for computerized compilation and production of charts. The essential tide and current information is entered into the system. The scales include 1:5000 for harbor charts, 1:10,000 for harbor and en- trance charts, and 1:20,000 for coastal charts. The NOS has projected that by fiscal year 1986 the total expenditures for automation will be $64 million. Without automation, costs would reach $98 million. Hence automation will result in an estimated cost avoidance of $34 million. The FMTF also made specific recommendations for the increased use of automated techniques in the production of aeronautical charts and support- ing data. Initial steps were taken by the aeronautical charting group in the NOS to assess the feasibility and to prepare a program development plan for automation. A contract for the project was awarded to a firm in the private sector late in 1978, but the contractor was unable to maintain established schedules and the contractual arrangement was severed in 1980. The Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography in the NOS has

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16 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW been authorized to proceed with the development of this project utilizing "in-house" personnel. This Panel endorses this action for it believes that most of the essential hardware and much of the basic software are available. By employing engineering development techniques, the NOS group will be able to assemble a workable system. The NOS has been successful in implementing an integrated automated distribution system for nautical and aeronautical charts plus the supporting data. The total number of the various charts produced annually by the NOS is approaching 25,000,000. In addition to the primary distribution by the NOS, there are more than 4000 sales agents for these products. In meeting the needs of civilian and military aviation with the rapid advances in aero- technology, the efficient distribution of these navigational aids is essential. This final phase is a vital part of the total automated system. 2.2.8 Cadastral Surveys The Cadastral Survey Division of the Bureau of Land Management (BEM) is responsible for the legal cadastral surveys required by all federal agencies. The 1973 Task Force, recognizing the complementary nature of the rectangular land system use for cadastral surveys and the national geodetic horizontal control network, made two recommendations related to the cadastral survey program. They recommended "transferring appropriate cadastral survey func- tions of BEM (excluding corner search and boundary marking) to" the new Federal Survey Administration. Although this step has not been achieved ad- ministratively, progress has been made through mutual understanding and agreements between the various federal agencies involved. The second recommendation was "implementation . . . of a combined geodetic/cadastral program in Alaska to meet requirements for State selection boundaries and for other cadastral surveys in Alaska, as practicable, and to provide geodetic control for multipurpose use." The BLM has initiated a vig- orous program for cadastral surveys in Alaska. The more complete coordina- tion with the geodetic and mapping programs has not been achieved. These problems are discussed in Section 2.3.5. Progress by the BLM Cadastral Survey Division since the 1973 report in- cludes the acquisition of inertial survey systems and Doppler receivers for sat- ellite surveying and the introduction of these modern geodetic techniques in their survey procedures. They have developed Memoranda of Agreement with the National Geodetic Survey and the Geological Survey to achieve more ef- fective coordination. These are the types of actions identified by the 1973 Task Force that are required for establishing a national cadastral survey program.

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20 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONS REVIEW 2.3.4 Crustal Movement When the 1973 FMTF considered the time-varying aspects of geodesy, they recommended "that the National Geodetic Program manager be given respon- sibility to (1) coordinate all federal civil earth-model development activities that contribute to the National Geodetic Networks, and (2) acomplish geo- detic measurementsthat is, positions, elevations, distances, and changes in distanceto support polar motion and crustal movement investigations or studies." The studies of plate tectonics and lithosphenc deformations have broadened the participation in crustal movement investigations. The National Research Council report Geodetic Monitoring of Tectonic Deformation-Toward a Strategy (Committee on Geodesy/Committee on Seismology, in preparation) investigates a range of methods and issues relating to geodynamics, with pn- mary emphasis on global and continental aspects, and recommends programs and procedures for monitoring crustal deformation. The following paragraphs are from the Introduction to that report: The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) have been carrying out, for some decades, programs of monitoring the strain over the tectonically active fault systems of the western United States. Monitoring during the 1970's of trilateration networks has been particularly important. The interpretation of crustal motions from triangulation data have also been valuable. In recent years, much effort has been devoted to repeated leveling surveys performed to monitor possible large and horizontally extensive vertical motions in southern California. We express our strong support for continuation and extension of the trilateration network measurements and of some other parts of these programs. We discuss the need for, and suggest improve- ments in, the application of classical geodetic techniques and discuss additional means of monitoring crustal motions. We also encourage more extensive scrutiny, utilization, and interpretation of the existing data base. The principal goal is to improve our knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns of strain accumulation. We believe that it is important to cover a relatively large range of distances in which a change in the pattern of deformation mint occur. For this reason, the baseline length of suggested measurements ranges from 1 to 100 km and the sam- pling rate from one sample per 10 years to one sample per second. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is the agency responsible for the horizontal and vertical control networks and the respective data base to meet engineering requirements and actively participates in the scientific programs supporting geodynamics. The engineering and scientific aspects must be uni- fied so they complement, not duplicate, each other. The engineering tasks are of such magnitude that state and local agencies must accomplish some of the measurements and forward observational data to the NGS for analysis and ad- justment into the data base. Consideration could be given to the use of fed- eral grant support for such efforts.

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 21 The 1973 recommendation relative to NGS management is still valid for survey activities. Interagency working groups have been established for broader geophysical applications. The problems are well defined, the observa- tional techniques are being perfected, and the operational schedules are being established; but the resources required to implement the programs have not been provided to support all the agencies involved adequately. Their planning could be more effective with greater coordination at the executive level. 2.3.5 Cadastral Surveys The 1973 Federal Mapping Task Force made several suggestions and recom- mendations directed toward the Cadastral surveying activities of the federal government. The primary federal group involved in Cadastral surveys is the Division of Cadastral Survey (formerly the Surveyor General, General Land Of fice) of the Bureau of Land Management (B. EM ), which has the responsibil- ity for the Cadastral survey of public lands. However, there are at least nine other federal agencies engaged in some aspect of Cadastral surveying, much of it not involving public lands. The BLM has responded to Task Force sugges- tions by introducing modern electronic distance-measuring instruments as standard equipment, Doppler receivers for connecting the rectangular land survey system to the national geodetic network, and inertial positioning sys- tems for use in Alaska. This use of modern technology is in sharp contrast to the statement in the 1973 report: "Cadastral surveys are of minimal value to the geodetic surveying community, and positions and areas based on the Cadastral network are not directly relatable to the geodetic network." Nevertheless, this Panel believes that the response has not been as full as it might be and makes the following recommendation: Recognizing the extensive effort in Cadastral surreys in Alaska and the need to expand the data base to include mor~mentation, documentation, and photoidentifcation of points to serve the needs of the mapping and geodetic programs, we recommend that the Cadastral effort be more fully coordinated with other federal mapping and geodetic agencies. When considering the total needs in Alaska for mapping, geodetic control, anal Cadastral surveys, this maximum coordination is essential. The fundamental problem, as seen by this Panel, relates to resources. At present, the BEM is not adequately funded for its program in Alaska, nor are the other federal mapping and geodetic agencies provided the resources to up- grade their level of activity in Alaska to assure the recommended coordina- tion. A central surveying and mapping agency could focus on these problems and could initiate programs to alleviate the situation. There has been no action on what might be considered the primary re- commendation of the 1973 report relative to Cadastral surveys, that is

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22 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW "transferring appropriate cadastral surveying functions of BLM . . . to a new central agency." Such action requires legislation or an executive order. 2.3.6 Digital Data Bases In Section 2.2.6, reference is made to the progress that the Geological Survey has made in the development of its cartographic digital data base. Also, the geodetic data base is discussed in Section 2.2.1 and the Nautical Charting Sys- tem Data Bank in Section 2.2.7. There are basic philosophical differences among the cartographic, geodetic, and nautical chart digital data sets that should be noted. The cartographic data base is being formed by digitizing the various elements of the 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps. The geodetic data base contains the original observations and the adjusted data for the horizon- tal and vertical control networks. The nautical chart data bank contains the hydrographic survey information, that is, all soundings referenced to point coordinates, in addition to all the supporting navigational information that may be required for any chart at any scale. However, the whole subject of digital data development and automation of the mapping process merits more attention than it is receiving. Coordination is taking place, but on a "volun- teer" basis, so with involvement by several agencies there could be unneces- sary duplication of equipment and production effort. Also, the information collected may not be compatible or interchangeable. Considering that the digitaldata base program recommended in theFed- eral Mapping Task Force report falls far short of today's requirements, we recommend the development of a data-management system that incorporates the activities of the mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and cadastral agen- cies and that will lead to an integrated land-information system We further- more recommend that a lead agency be designated for this program and that sufficient new funding be male available to accomplish the task. 2.3.7 Research and Development The Federal Mapping Task Force made recommendations for more effective use of the research and development (R&D) resources of the various agencies. The 1973 report described the R&D programs in mapping, charting, and geodesy (MC&G) of the civilian agencies as "small and dispersed" or "frag- mented." lathe level of funding was not sufficient to "develop the expensive and complicated automated systems necessary to meet growing domestic needs effectively and efficiently." It may be concluded that the Task Force was giving more attention to "development" than to "research." There are basic and applied research programs supporting surveying and mapping that merit equal consideration and may not require the same financial support as f

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 23 needed for systems development. The combined effort of all civilian groups should be subject to periodic review and evaluation. Recognizing the efforts by federal civilian agencies to coordinate their re- search and development programs in mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and the multipurpose cadastre through ad hoc cooperative agreements and technical exchange programs between agencies, we recommend that this co- ordination be formally established either by designation of lead agencies or by revision of OMB Circular No. A-16 to provide for such coordination as an interim action until the time a single Federal Surveying and MappingAdmin- istration is formed. 2.4 PROGRAM UPDATE SINCE THE FMTF REPORT The advances in technology and the shifts in national priorities are such that there are several major activities involving surveying and mapping that need to be identified and included in a review and update of the 1973 FMTF study. These include the scientific emphasis on national and international studies re- lating to geodynamics, the increasing importance of cadastral surveys, the maintenance of the federal highway system, the shifts of population toward the coastal zones with the associated development, and the federal support for urban renewal and community development. 2.4. 1 Geodynamics The section of the Task Force report dealing with geodetic support of geo- dynamics is considered inadequate in view of the many important questions that are beyond our present capability to answer, despite the rapid progress achieved within the past decade in understanding the dynamic behavior of the earth. Some selected examples are: How are the tectonic plates moving at present? Is the movement smooth, or is it episodic? Almost the only infor- mation to date on contemporary plate movement comes from earthquake focal mechanism estimates, but how do these sudden movements at active plate boundaries relate to the gross movement of the plates? How do the plates deform in response to the driving forces responsible for the movement? How is the strain distributed near active plate margins, and how does the strain change with time? What relationship, if any, is there between variations in polar motion and other geodynamic phenomena such as great earthquakes? What these questions have in common is that progress in finding answers to them depends at least on our ability to measure geodetically the relative positions of points on the earth's surface and on changes of positions over dis- tances ranging to many thousands of kilometers. For the determination of relative positions of points and their changes over distances shorter than 100

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24 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW km in determining intraplate deformations, such as measuring motions along fault zones, classical ground-based geodetic surveying methods are useful and important. However, for baselines longer than 100 km there are several rea- sons why such techniques are impractical. The basic one is that ground sur- veys must necessarily be made in a series of line-of-sight measurements be- tween points a few kilometers apart, and the accumulation of errors soon brings uncertainties in position above the required levels of a few centimeters. The second reason is that ground surveys are time consuming and expensive. The cost of frequently monitoring horizontal and vertical movements pos- sibly several times per year in even a few tectonically active areas is prohibitive. To meet the new needs described above, new ground techniques and space methods need to be and are being developed by a number of federal agencies and other organizations. For ground surveys these include single and multi- wavelength electronic distance-measuring devices, high-precision gravimeters, and tilt and strain meters. The most important methods involving space tech- nology are laser ranging to the moon and to man-made satellites and micro- wave radio interferomeby. In addition to these positioning systems, other significant -contributions are being made for the detailed mapping of the earth's gravity and magnetic fields using both ground and space technology. The classical astronomical methods of measuring polar motion and earth rotation appear to have an accuracy limit of about 1 m. Theoretical estimates of the change in polar motion due to a large earthquake suggest that this accuracy must be improved to a few centimeters to be able to study possible relationships between these phenomena. With the development of space techniques, very-long-baseline interferom- etry (VLBI), Doppler, and laser-ranging satellite measurements provide an opportunity for improving the accuracy by at least an order of magnitude plus the advantages (for VLBI and Doppler) of all-weather systems. Possibly the most notable effort in this regard is the project POLARIS (Polar Motion Analysis by Radio Interferometric Surveying) initiated by the National Geo- detic Survey (NGS) in 1977. The plan specifies that NGS would establish and operate a three-station network of V~BI observatories to monitor polar mo- tion and earth rotation on a continuing basis. Two of the stations will be completed by 1981 (Ft. Davis, Texas, and Westford, Massachusetts). The third station, at Richmond, Florida, has suffered delays caused by funding constraints. In view of the national and international significance of the above triangle, the Panel strongly recommends that adequate support be provided to complete the VLB! network and to enable its operation in a continuous mode The International Astronomical Union and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics through its International Association of Geodesy have formed joint working groups for a special period of collaboration on a

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 25 new project known as MERIT Monitoring of Earth-Rotation and the Inter- comparison of the Techniques of observations and analysis). Some agencies have had difficulties in obtaining additional resources for these programs. This Panel emphasizes the need for international cooperation and acceptance of the results for the reduction of astronomical and geodetic measurements to a common reference or origin. We recommend that federal agency pro- grams for acquiring such data and federal participation in international pro- grams such as MERIT be supported. Few of the above-described activities had been foreseen and therefore were not included in the recommendations of the 1973 FMTF study. 2.4.2 Cadastre The section of the Task Force report dealing with federal cadastral surveys (pages 44-55) implies that the surveys are of minimum value because they were accomplished without regard for geodetic accuracies or ties, even though the surveys were conducted in accordance with federal law. The report fur- ther states that the surveys of the conterminous 48 states are all revision sur- veys, implying that the original surveys are now being "corrected"; the latter is not the case. However, the BLM does execute resurveys that are a re- establishment of the original survey. Local survey units of appropriate land- management agencies perform administrative surveys that define land bound- aries between existing monuments. The report recommends that a dense network (20-km interval) of second- or higher-order geodetic control be accomplished to provide for geodetic sur- vey ties to the BLM rectangular surveys so as to provide cadastral data for a land resource management information program. The BLM plans to provide the geographic position of each rectangular survey southeast corner for use as a parcel identifier in a multiple-use land data bank interactive graphics system. Hence, the Public Land Survey System will no longer be independent of the geodetic reference system when the plan is fully implemented. The 1973 FMTF report did not specifically address the national needs for a multipurpose cadastre. However, the National Research Council report Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre (Committee on Geodesy, 1980) enumerates the benefits to the local, state, and federal governments of a national multi- purpose cadastre. It emphasizes that the development of a multipurpose cadas- tre should be "gradual" and that "many of the functions necessary for the land-information system are being performed now." Coordination between federal, state, and local governments with technical direction and guidance from the federal level are the key factors. The Panel that produced that re- port stated: "It is imperative that the federal effort be coordinated through a single surveying and mapping agency." l

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26 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW 2.4.3 Highways At the time of the 1973 report, the special surveys required for the develop- ment of the Interstate Highway System were considered to be local in nature and were classed as "facility surveys." Now, when we consider the total high- way system and the surveying and mapping activities associated with its main- tenance, this phase of the program becomes national in extent. The liaison role of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) becomes important for the coordination of state and local activities with federal functions in survey- ing and mapping in support of the highway system. The mission of the FHWA is to assist state highway agencies, through Highway Trust Fund financing, in the satisfaction of their transportation needs while maintaining a degree of uniformity in the development of an inte- grated system of federal-aid highways, including the 68,000-km Interstate System, and over 1,500,000 km of federal-aid primary and secondary roads and urban streets. The funding by FHWA of state activities in surveying and mapping is in- tended only to support the larger activity of highway development, either in individual construction projects or as part of statewide planning. Accordingly, with but few exceptions, FHWA financing of surveying and mapping is dedi- cated to the accomplishment of state and local goals through transportation improvement. The administration of federal-aid highway funds is now largely decentral- ized, and the responsibility for approval and monitoring of programs and projects has been delegated to the field offices in each state. In some states, surveying and mapping are being separated from the Department of Transpor- tation and included in other state departments under a variety of names, such as Department of Environmental Development, Environmental Resources, and Natural Resources. The FHWA recognizes the routine need for state and local agencies to make surveys and develop maps that satisfy instant project requirements but may have marginal benefits to national goals. Federal funds are often used for this expedient work. The FHWA, serving as the representative for the Depart- ment of Transportation on the Federal Geodetic Control Committee, has been an active supporter of the provisions of OMB Circular No. A-16, espe- cially for the strict compliance with the standards and specifications for geo- detic surveys. A spokesman for FHWA states that "any success experienced by FHWA in implementing national highway goals through the federal-aid highway pro- gram has been attained through education and support rather than mandate. Accordingly, the same success in surveying and mapping can be attained through close cooperation at the local level, the continuation of cooperative programs, and persistence in educating state, county, and local surveyors and f

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 27 mappers in the benefits to be derived from quality maps and accurate sur- veys" (Johnson, 1980~. In Connecticut, the Bureau of Highways in the State Department of Trans- portation has made excellent use of this federal-aid support program. Because of the favorable ratio of the combined lengths of the interstate, primary, and secondary systems to the geographic area of the state, the Chief of Surveys in the Bureau of Highways reports that they will be able to complete a high- density geodetic control survey for the state from these funds (Sullivan, 1980~. The field surveys are being accomplished by a unit of the National Geodetic Survey under a cooperative agreement that provides for full re- imbursement. 2.4.4 Coastal Zone Mapping, charting, surveying, and geodesy in the Coastal Zone have become focal points of concern and are areas of substantial program emphasis since the 1973 FMTF report was prepared. The demand for National Ocean Survey products and services has increased dramatically since the Coastal Zone Man- agement Act of 1972 and related coastal and offshore legislation were passed. Indices of these demands are the more than 60 million people who now live and work in counties within 80 km of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlan- tic Ocean. The national shoreline population is increasing three times faster than growth rates for other areas. Overall, more than 53 percent of the total industrial base of the United States is located within the coastal region. Outgrowths of the increased resource development, environmental con- cern, and new legislation since the 1973 FMTF report are demands for the following: . Tidal datum determinations and information along shore in estuarine and wetland areas; Bathymetric and topographic mapping; Marine boundary determinations; Extended jurisdiction boundary delimitation; Geographic positioning at sea; Geodetic leveling information and measurements of subsidence and en- vironmental impacts; Correlation of estuarine, tidal, and geodetic elevation data; . Geodetic positioning (i.e., network development) in the Coastal Zone and offshore; and . Maps and baseline oceanic and geophysical (such as geoid and sea- surface) information for marine resource assessment, monitoring, and pre- diction.

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28 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW In the meantime, the National Ocean Survey has implemented new pro- gram efforts to provide: Marine boundary determinations in cooperation with the states, Geodetic survey and services in cooperation with the State of South Carolina; and Bathymetric and topographic mapping in cooperation with the Geologi- cal Survey and the states. "Topographic-bathymetric" maps combine the efforts of the Geological Survey and NOS into a single product. The topography delineates the natural and man-made features of the land. Ocean features include bathymetric con- tours, offshore protraction survey data, oil and gas platforms and pipeline locations, shipping channels, and shoals. The ultimate objective is com- plete coverage of the United States Coastal Zones at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000. At the initial stage, the mapping effort is con- centrated on the 1:250,000 series, which will be used primarily for planning purposes. Fulfillment of the new requirements involves additional initiatives In map- ping, surveys, and geodesy, including the development and use of new tech- nologr, remote-sensing data collections, and measurements. Some examples of expanded or new activities needed are the following: . A comprehensive coastal hazards program in response to the threat of hurricanes and severe storms along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts; Increased geodetic surveys and services in cooperation with other fed- eral, state, and local agencies; A shoreline mapping and monitoring program; Measurements of crustal motions and subsidence in coastal areas; Expanded fishery obstruction charting; Accelerated storm evacuation mapping; Expanded ocean-dynamic measurements; A concerted funded effort to correlate geodetic, geophysical, and ocean- ographic data for comprehensive use; and Development and implementation of the Global Positioning System, satellite-sensing fine-grain bathymetry, and other mapping, surveying, and oceanographic technology. The breadth of interests shown in these demands and activities helps to re- enforce the recommendation for a Federal Surveying and Mapping Adminis- tration.

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Federal Mapping Task Force Report, 1973 2.4.5 Urban Development 29 The 1973 Task Force, when reviewing the activities of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), recognized that many of the proj- ects supported by HUD had a fundamental requirement for surveys and maps. The 1973 report contains recommendations that ask for greater coordination with the surveying and mapping agencies and suggests the transfer of funds by the Office of Management and Budget to accomplish this objective. The programs and priorities of HUD have changed somewhat during the past few years. However, the basic philosophy remains the same. HUD'S mis- sion is to increase the supply and quality of housing and housing opportuni- ties especially for low- and moderate-income citizens and improve their envi- ronment through building new or improving existing communities. Mainly, two methods are used: (1) technical advice and assistance as well as perform- ance standards and (2) financial aid in the form of direct grants or loan guar- antees. HUD, as an agency, makes no surveys, draws no plans, and builds no buildings. Until 1975, HUD programs included a number of categorical grants where specific projects were funded, such as the building or extension of a municipal water or sewer system, direct aids to mass transit, the purchase of land for parks and their development for recreation purposes, and the acquisi- tion of a substandard housing area and its clearing and rebuilding with hous- ing and necessary support facilities. Beginning in 1976, HUD'S various categorical grant programs were consoli- dated into a single block grant program with an annual range of $3 billion to $4 billion. Roughly 75 percent of this must be spent to benefit low- and moderate-income persons; the balance can be used for almost any municipal improvement for which local tax money would be authorized. HUD reports that "the purchase of maps or mapping services is an eligible expenditure of block grant funds." However, we believe that very little emphasis has been placed on mapping. An examination of the fiscal year 1978 HUD financial report for "Commu- nity Planning and Development" shows that out of a total of $56 million, $200,000 was used for "Mapping" while $26.5 million, almost half, was used for "Management." Another $8 million was allocated to "Land UsePlanning and Programming." HUD'S current interest in urban areas includes sociological aspects to as such or even greater extent than the physical infrastructure of housing, utili- ties, transportation, and public facilities, which are frequently associated with conventional city planning. HUD operates almost exclusively in urban areas and finds that for its societal programs most of the cities are mapped at scales and accuracies that serve the purpose. At the time of the 1973 study, HUD was actively engaged in an extensive

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30 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW mapping program in support of the Flood Insurance Program established by Congress in 1968. The ability to establish the 25- and 100-year flood levels was essential to forecast flood risk and to set insurance rates. The mapping was accomplished primarily under contracts with private groups, with limited assistance from federal agencies. The Flood Insurance Program is now oper- ated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). However, this Panel believes that there will always be a need for surveys and maps to sup- port this program and considers the recommendation made by the 1973 Task Force to be valid: "that flood insurance mapping be accomplished by the new agency, and that standards and specifications be developed in accordance withHUD [nowFEMA] requirements." 2.4.6 Conclusion In conclusion we emphasize the potential role of a single agency to respond to shifts in national priorities and advances in technology. With central man- agement, the duplication of effort in long-range planning would be eliminated. The managers of engineering, scientific, and societal domestic programs re- quiring surveying and mapping information would have a single point of con- tact. The national needs, programs, and goals would be more effectively iden- tified and achieved.