Biographical Memoirs


NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
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Biographical Memoirs

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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 84 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. 0 -309-08957-3 (B OOK ) INTERNATIONAL S TANDARD B OOK N UMBER INTERNATIONAL S TANDARD B OOK N UMBER 0 -309-52419-9 (PDF) INTERNATIONAL S TANDARD S ERIAL N UMBER 0 077-2933 LIBRARY O F C ONGRESS C ATALOG C ARD N UMBER 5 -26629 Available from THE N ATIONAL A CADEMIES P RESS 500 F IFTH S TREET , N . W . WASHINGTON , D . C . 20001 2 004 COPYRIGHT B Y T HE N ATIONAL A CADEMY O F S CIENCES ALL R IGHTS R ESERVED PRINTED I N T HE U NITED S TATES O F A MERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE vii H. A. BARKER BY ROBERT L. SWITZER, EARL R. STADTMAN, AND 3 THRESSA C. STADTMAN ABRAM BERGSON 23 BY PAUL A. SAMUELSON ROBERT M. BERNE 37 BY MATTHEW N. LEVY GERHARD LUDWIG CLOSS 53 BY HEINZ D. ROTH SIDNEY DARLINGTON 83 BY IRWIN W. SANDBERG AND ERNEST S. KUH ROBERT R. GILRUTH 93 BY CHRISTOPHER C. KRAFT, JR. DAVID EZRA GREEN BY HELMUT BEINERT, PAUL K. STUMPF, AND 113 SALIH J. WAKIL v

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vi CONTENTS ERNEST GRUNWALD 147 BY EDWARD M. ARNETT WILLIAM REDINGTON HEWLETT 165 BY ROBERT J. SCULLY AND MARLAN O. SCULLY JAMES GERALD HIRSCH 183 BY CAROL L. MOBERG AND RALPH M. STEINMAN VERNON WILLARD HUGHES 205 BY ROBERT K. ADAIR GORDON JAMES FRASER MACDONALD 225 BY WALTER MUNK, NAOMI ORESKES, AND RICHARD MULLER HORACE WINCHELL MAGOUN 251 BY LOUISE H. MARSHALL SANFORD LOUIS PALAY BY ALAN PETERS, JACK ROSENBLUTH, GEORGE PAPPAS, 271 LAWRENCE KRUGER, AND ENRICO MUGNAINI KENNETH LEE PIKE 287 BY THOMAS N. HEADLAND CHARLES MADERA RICK 307 BY STEVEN D. TANKSLEY AND GURDEV S. KHUSH ROBERT GREEN SACHS 321 BY KAMESHWAR C. WALI SHERWOOD LARNED WASHBURN 349 BY F. CLARK HOWELL VICTOR FREDERICK WEISSKOPF 373 BY J. DAVID JACKSON AND KURT GOTTFRIED GORDON RANDOLPH WILLEY 399 BY EVON Z. VOGT, JR.

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward in- creasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliogra- phies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sci- ences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary vii

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