WATER AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES

A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

Parry Norling, Frankie Wood-Black, and Tina M. Masciangioli, Editors

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable WATER AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Parry Norling, Frankie Wood-Black, and Tina M. Masciangioli, Editors Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Research Corporation under Grant No. GG0066; the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG-02-95ER14556; the National Institutes of Health under Grant No. N01-OD-2139, Task Order 25; and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-0328197. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09200-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-053173-X (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Co-chairs F. FLEMING CRIM, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ Members PAUL ANASTAS, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA MICHELLE V. BUCHANAN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN LEONARD J. BUCKLEY, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA CHARLES P. CASEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI MICHAEL P. DOYLE, University of Maryland, College Park, MD ARTHUR B. ELLIS, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA TERESA FRYBERGER, Department of Energy, Washington, DC JEAN H. FUTRELL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA PAUL GILMAN, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC ESIN GULARI, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA ALEX HARRIS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY NED D. HEINDEL, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA CAROL J. HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA MICHAEL J. HOLLAND, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI GEORGE H. LORIMER, University of Maryland, College Park, MD PAUL F. MCKENZIE, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ PARRY M. NORLING, RAND (retired), Wilmington, DE WILLIAM S. REES, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC GERALDINE L. RICHMOND, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, TN DOTSEVI Y. SOGAH, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY WALTER J. STEVENS, Department of Energy, Washington, DC FRANKIE WOOD-BLACK, ConocoPhillips, Ponca City, OK NRC Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ANDRIA HOBBS, Christine Mirzayan Intern (through December 31, 2003) SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Co-Chairs WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Members DENISE M. BARNES, Amalan Networks, Snellville, GA A. WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA ANDREA W. CHOW, Caliper Life Sciences, Mountain View, CA THOMAS M. CONNELLY, JR., DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE MARK E. DAVIS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA JEAN DEGRAEVE, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC CATHERINE C. FENSELAU, University of Maryland, College Park, MD MAURICIO FUTRAN, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ LOU ANN HEIMBROOK, Merck & Company, Inc., Rahway, NJ NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM MARTHA A. KREBS, Science Strategies, Los Angeles, CA WILLIAM A. LESTER, JR., University of California, Berkeley, CA GREGORY O. NELSON, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, TN ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Latham & Watkins, Washington, DC NRC Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer TINA M.MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ANDRIA HOBBS, Christine Mirzayan Intern (through December 31, 2003) SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST), the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops addressing issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention. A workshop was organized by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable of BCST on the topic Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences. The workshop brought together top experts in the area of water science and technology and leaders in chemistry and chemical engineering from government, industry, and academia. This interaction was intended to enhance the synergy between these two communities and help engage a broader cross section of the chemical sciences community in this important arena of science and technology. The workshop sessions provided technical background and explored enhanced roles that the chemical sciences R&D community might play in identifying and addressing the issues that make water a critical limiting factor in human economic development and sustainability. The goal of the workshop was to inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. In that process, it may also engage the broad chemical sciences community in addressing the question of how to ensure the adequate supply of water that is required for public health, sustainable agriculture and food security, energy generation, and economic growth. This report is largely an edited transcript of speaker and discussion remarks at the workshop. The discussions were edited and organized around major themes to provide a more readable summary. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers. Parry Norling and Frankie Wood-Black Workshop Organizers

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Arthur Daemmrich, Chemical Heritage Foundation Jean H. Futrell, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Raymond Hamelin, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (retired) David Rea, DuPont Company (retired) Vernon L. Snoeyink, University of Illinois Garret P. Westerhoff, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Perry L. McCarty, Silas H. Palmer Professor Emeritus, Stanford University. Appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable Contents INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY   1 CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW     1   MEETING THE GLOBAL WATER CHALLENGE Alan D. Hecht, White House Council on Environmental Quality   7 2   GREEN CHEMISTRY: THE IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLIES Dennis J. Hjeresen, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Green Chemistry Institute   11 3   METHYLMERCURY CONTAMINATION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A WIDESPREAD PROBLEM WITH MANY CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES David P. Krabbenhoft, U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division   19 WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLY: ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT     4   DESALINATION: LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES Thomas E. Hinkebein, Sandia National Laboratories   29 5   ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: CHALLENGES FOR THE WATER/ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING COMMUNITY Richard G. Luthy, Stanford University   40 6   AQUASENTINELSM: BIOSENSORS FOR RAPID MONITORING OF PRIMARY-SOURCE DRINKING WATER Elias Greenbaum, Oak Ridge National Laboratory   47

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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES     7   SOME NEW APPROACHES AT THE ORANGE COUNTY WATER DISTRICT Virginia Grebbien, Orange County Water District   55 8   A PERSPECTIVE FROM A WATER COMPANY Floyd Wicks, American Water Company of California   60 9   SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL WATER MANAGEMENT Bhasker Davé, Ondeo Nalco   66 10   WATER SOLUTIONS AND STRATEGIES IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Carol R. Jensen, The Dow Chemical Company   75 11   CLASSIFYING DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION FOR REGULATORY CONSIDERATION Bruce A. Macler, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency   81 APPENDIXES     A   WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS   87 B   BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF WORKSHOP SPEAKERS   89 C   ORIGIN OF AND INFORMATION ON THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE   92 D   FOR FURTHER READING   93