. "9 Sustainable Development: Role of Industrial Water Management." Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
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Water and Sustainable Development: Opportunities for the Chemical Sciences - A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable
TABLE 9.1 Comparison of Water Usage for Developed and Developing Nations
Domestic Use (%)
Industrial Use (%)
Agricultural Use (%)
United States of America
SOURCE: Food and Agriculture Organization (1999) AQUASTAT estimates.
Figure 9.3 shows some very generic input-output for a given industrial site. The three major imported resources are energy, water, and chemical entities, and the undesirable outputs are airborne contaminants, wastewater, and sludge. Therefore, from an industrial perspective sustainable growth goals include reducing both resource consumption (e.g., water) and harmful environmental impacts, while increasing profitable growth.
In looking at the economic intensity of water and energy for different industries, pulp and paper and petroleum refin
FIGURE 9.3 Industrial inputs and outputs.
ing are the largest users of water and energy in the manufacturing sector (Figure 9.4). The numbers shown represent cubic meters of water used per dollar value of the product output. For energy, the units are megajoules (MJ) of energy used for every dollar of product made.
Integrated Water Management
It is important to look at the manufacturing system in its entirety to address water resource management issues (Figure 9.5). Water is typically used in three main areas: manu-