TABLE 9.1 Comparison of Water Usage for Developed and Developing Nations

 

Domestic Use (%)

Industrial Use (%)

Agricultural Use (%)

Canada

11

80

8

United States of America

12

46

42

France

16

69

15

Germany

14

68

18

Brazil

43

17

40

China

6

7

87

India

3

4

93

 

SOURCE: Food and Agriculture Organization (1999) AQUASTAT estimates.

Industrial Perspective

Figure 9.3 shows some very generic input-output for a given industrial site. The three major imported resources are energy, water, and chemical entities, and the undesirable outputs are airborne contaminants, wastewater, and sludge. Therefore, from an industrial perspective sustainable growth goals include reducing both resource consumption (e.g., water) and harmful environmental impacts, while increasing profitable growth.

In looking at the economic intensity of water and energy for different industries, pulp and paper and petroleum refin

FIGURE 9.3 Industrial inputs and outputs.

ing are the largest users of water and energy in the manufacturing sector (Figure 9.4). The numbers shown represent cubic meters of water used per dollar value of the product output. For energy, the units are megajoules (MJ) of energy used for every dollar of product made.

Integrated Water Management

It is important to look at the manufacturing system in its entirety to address water resource management issues (Figure 9.5). Water is typically used in three main areas: manu-

FIGURE 9.4 Water and energy use.



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