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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques EXISTING AND POTENTIAL STANDOFF EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNIQUES Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Defense under contract number MD972-03-1-0009. All opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09130-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52959-X (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF EXISTING AND POTENTIAL STANDOFF EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNIQUES JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University, Chair ANTONIO A. CANTU, United States Secret Service ANDREA W. CHOW, Caliper Technologies Corporation PAUL S. FUSSELL, Boeing PhAntom Works RALPH G. NUZZO, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana JOHN E. PARMETER, Sandia National Laboratories GARY S. SAYLER, University of Tennessee JEAN’NE M. SHREEVE, University of Idaho RICHART E. SLUSHER, Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories MICHAEL STORY, MS Consulting WILLIAM TROGLER, University of California, San Diego VENNKAT VENKATASUBRAMANIAN, Purdue University LANCE A. WALLER, Emory University JONATHAN YOUNG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory CHARLES F. ZUKOSKI, University of Illinois, Urbana Staff CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University, Co-chair ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Co-chair DENISE M. BARNES, Amalan Networks A. WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., The Pennsylvania State University ANDREA W. CHOW, Caliper Technologies Corp. THOMAS M. CONNELLY, JR., E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company MARK E. DAVIS, California Institute of Technology JEAN DE GRAEVE, Institut de Pathologie, Liège, Belgium JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University CATHERINE FENSELAU, University of Maryland MAURICIO FUTRAN, Bristol Myers Squibb Company LOU ANN HEIMBROOK, Merck & Co. NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories MARTHA A. KREBS, Science Strategies WILLIAM A. LESTER, JR., University of California, Berkeley GREGORY O. NELSON, Eastman Chemical Company ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Latham & Watkins Staff TINA MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jose Almirall, Florida International University Robert J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California Colin G. Drury, State University of New York Allen N. Garroway, Naval Research Laboratory David M. Golden, SRI International Richard C. Lanza, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lyle O. Malotky, Transportation Security Administration Jimmie C. Oxley, University of Rhode Island Lynne F. Schneemyer, National Science Foundation Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics Inc. (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 12 2 Elements of Detection: Concepts, Threats, and Devices 18 3 Systems of Detection 35 4 Chemical Characteristics of Bombs 56 5 Existing Detection Techniques and Potential Applications to Standoff Detection 71 6 Biological Markers 97 7 Unexploited Potential Bases of Detection 104 8 Summary of Committee Recommendations 117 Appendixes A Statement of Task 125 B Glossary 126 C Presentations to the Committee 129
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