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Index A A-6 aircraft, 126 A-7 aircraft, 126 ABM defense. See Ballistic missile defense systems ABM Treaty. See SALT I ABM Treaty Adelman, Kenneth, 165-66 Afghanistan, 19-20,22,25,31, 111, 163 Africa, 248 Air defense, 53, 54, 94-95, 97-98 triad of strategic forces, 5, 13, 14, 27-28, 69,77 See also Ballistic missile defense systems; SALT I ABM Treaty Air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs), 14,36, 69-71, 98 SALT II, 31, 34,40-41,44 START proposals, 60, 62-64, 66, 67,75 Air-to-surface ballistic missiles (ASBMs), 34, 35 Alpha 2-MOO infrared chemical laser, 164 Andropov, Yuri, 78, 105, 116-20, 126, 145, 165, 166, 172 Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems. 369 See Ballistic missile defense sys- tems; SALT I ABM Treaty Anti-satellite (ASAT) arms control, 2, 10, 159-86 background, 159-63 domestic supporters' position, 179-86 1980s developments, 163-71 Soviet position, 172, 177-79 U.S. position, 171-77 verification issue, 172-74, 176-78 182-84 Anti-satellite (ASAT) systems ABM system interaction, 159, 160, 184-85 and deterrence policy, 175-76, 182 military utility, 176, 182 Soviet systems, 161, 163, 164 systems considered as, 174-75 U.S. systems, 160-61, 163, 164 Antisubmarine warfare, 94, 97,98 Argentina, 244, 247-49, 262, 266, 269,270 Arms control. See Nuclear arms con- trol; and specific treaties, pro- posals, issues, and countries Arms Control and Disarmament Act, 44

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370 Arms race stability, 4-9 ASAT arms control. See Anti-satellite (ASAT) arms control ASAT systems. See Anti-satellite (ASAT) systems Asia, missile deployment issue, 128-29, 131-32 Assured destruction doctrine, 13, 138,144,154 Atomic Energy Act, 234, 237 Atomic Energy Commission, 194 Atoms for Peace program, 233-34 237 Australia, 257, 258 B B-1 aircraft, 75, 76, 78,91, 98 B-1A aircraft, 68 B-52 aircraft, 28, 36,41, 69, 70, 75, 93 Backfire bomber, 68,70,91, 103-4, 107,110, 124 and INF negotiations, 116 and SALT II, 31, 35,41,43,51, 321 and START, 62, 66, 74,76,78 Badger aircraft, 116 Ballistic missile defense systems, 94 ASAT systems interaction, 159, 160, 184-85 and comprehensive test ban, 209, 211-12 initial systems, 13,25-27, 136-37 Nike-X system, 137-39 Safeguard system, 140-44 Sentinel system, 139-40 Strategic Defense Initiative, 15, 144-47, 149-58, 165,209 see also SALT I ABM Treaty Ballistic missile submarines. See Submarines; and specific submarine types Bans, 9-10. See also Comprehensive test ban; Nuclear test bans Barnwell reprocessing plant, 230,237 Baruch Plan, 233 Bear aircraft, 51, 70,75, 103 Belgium, 134 INDEX Biological Weapons Convention of 1972,56,57 Bison aircraft, 51,70, 75, 103 Blackjack bomber, 68 Blinder aircraft, 116 Bomber force, 14,27-28, 36 air defense systems, 94, 95, 97-98 SALT I Interim Agreement, 33 SALTII,30, 33, 47, 51 START proposals, 60, 62-64, 66, 67, 74-76 See also specific aircraft Brazil, 235, 236, 244, 247, 248, 260, 262,266,269-70 Brezhnev, Leonid and INF negotiations, 112-15 nuclear freeze proposals, 60, 84, 105, 111 and PNE Treaty, 198 and SALT I, 29, 136, 143, 144 and SALT II, 16,25, 30, 31, 35,41 and START, 60,78 Britain, 134 and non-proliferation, 101, 246, 247,261 nuclear capability, 16,126, 129, 132,233 test ban negotiations, 99, 187, 189, 191, 192, 195,200,201 Brown, George,-169 Buccaneer aircraft, 126 Bulganin, Nikolai, 81 Build-down proposal, 60-65, 73-74, 76,78,86 Bush, George, 117 C "Call to Halt the Nuclear Arms Race" (Forsberg), 82,88, 93, 94 Canada, 235, 257, 258, 260 Carter administration 14, 112 ASAT arms control, 160-63 CTB negotiations, 187, 199-202 non-proliferation policy, 230, 235,240 SALT II, 18,20,25, 31,32, 35,52, 111, 158 Central America, 247

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INDEX Chernenko, Konstantin, 168, 169, 178 Chile, 244, 247 China, People's Republic of, 201, 247, 248,261 as non-signatory to treaties, 196, 222,244,272 as nuclear power, 16,226,233 Civil defense systems, 13 Clinch River breeder reactor, 230,237 Coalition for Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 168-69 Cohen, William, 61 Committee on Disarmament, 164, 202,203 Compliance records, 18-19, 32,52- 57, 158,204 Comprehensive test ban (CTB),2, 8, 21,95, 196, 198-223 Carter administration efforts, 187, 199-202 initial negotiations, 187-90 and nuclear proliferation issue, 222-23,249-50 and peaceful nuclear explosions 198-99,213-14 Reagan administration position, 187,202-4 security concerns, 204-15 verification, 189-94, 197-201,205, 215-22 Conference of Experts, 188 Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Tests, 189 Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, 239 Congress, U.S. on ASAT arms control, 166, 168-70 build-down resolution, 61, 63, 86 Limited Test Ban Treaty, 195 nuclear freeze resolutions, 61-62, 83-90 SALT I treaties, 22, 29-30, 144 SALT II, 20, 22, 25, 31-32 Conte, Silvio, 83 Convention on the Physical Protec- tion of Nuclear Material, 251 371 Counterforce doctrine, 14, 92 Countervailing strategy, 14 Crisis stability, 4-10, 156, 182 Cruise missiles, 68,72, 91 SALT II, 33, 35,36,44 START proposals, 60, 63, 67,75,76, 78 See also Air-launched cruise mis- siles; Ground-launched cruise . . . missiles Cuba, 244, 247-49, 270 Cuban missile crisis, 108, 192-93 Czechoslovakia, 27, 140 D Defense systems air defense, 53, 54, 94-95,97-98 triad of strategic forces, 5, 13, 14, 27-28, 69,77 See also Ballistic missile defense systems; SALT I ABM Treaty de Gaulle, Charles, 108 DeLauer, Richard, 167 Delta submarines, 68, 91 Democratic party, 85, 87-88 Denmark, 113, 134 Deterrence doctrine, 3, 13-14, 26,27, 175-76, 182 Directed energy weapons, 146-47, 151,152, 175, 183 Disarmament, 3 Dobrynin, Anatoli, 170 Dual-capable systems, 88, 94, 101, 133 EEarthquakes, and underground nuclear tests, 216-17, 219 Egypt, 248 Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference (ENDC), 192 Eisenhower administration, 17,21, 81, 137, 187-91,233 Electromagnetic pulse radiation, 211 El Salvador, 247 Encryption of telemetry, 34,46,50, 55-56, 66,79

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372 "Essential equivalence" policy, 14, 27,35-44 Europe forward-based systems in, 28,40 nuclear freeze, 97, 105 See also Intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) negotiations; and specific countries Export of nuclear materials. See Nuclear non-proliferation Export-Import Bank Act, 236 F F-4 aircraft, 126 F-15 ASAT system, 163, 165, 167, 181 F-111 aircraft, 111, 116, 126 FB-111 aircraft, 41, 116, 126 Fissionable materials production ban, 81, 88,99-100 Flexible response policy, 109 Ford administration, 14, 16, 30, 161, 187, 198, 199,235 Foreign Assistance Act, 236 Foreign Relations Committee, Senate, 63,84, 86 Forsberg, Randall, 82,88,93 Forward-based systems, 28, 40 France and INF negotiations, 117, 129, 132 and non-proliferation, 233, 235, 242,244,247,257,259-61,270, 272,273 nuclear capability, 16, 126,233 and test bans, 191, 196,201,222, 223 Freeze. See Nuclear freeze Funding ASAT system, 166, 169 IAEA budget, 265 military expenditures, 6, 68, 70-71 Strategic Defense Initiative, 146 Fusion program, 222 G Galosh ABM missiles, 177 Gandhi, Indira, 266 Geneva Protocol of 1925, 56, 57 George, James, 202 INDEX Germany. See West Germany Greece, 134 Grenada, 247 Gromyko, Andrei, 86, 105, 112, 117, 118, 163-64, 167, 177, 199 Ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs),35 European deployment, 57, 107, 110-11 INF negotiations, 16, 113, 115, 118, 119, 121, 122, 127, 128, 131, 133 START proposals, 63, 67, 75 Guatemala, 247 H Haig, Alexander M., Jr., 112, 113 Harriman, Averell, 194 Hatfield, Mark, 83 Helsinki Final Act, 56 Honduras, 247 I India, 214, 226, 233, 235-38, 244, 248,249,259-62,266 INF negotiations. See Intermediate- range nuclear force (INF) negoti- ations Inspection. See Verification Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launchers mobile, 33, 35 SALT I Interim Agreement, 29, 33 SALTII,30, 31,33, 34, 38, 42, 47, 50-51 START proposals, 67 Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) SALT II, 39,42,43,49,51-52 single-warhead missiles, 61, 73-77 Soviet capability, 65, 68,72, 74-75, 90-91 START proposals, 59-60, 62-67, 72-79 U.S. component, 65,75, 77 See also MX missiles Intermediate-range nuclear force

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INDEX (INF) negotiations, 2, 20, 59, 90, 107-35 background, 107-10 European nuclear balance issue, 16,123-27 interim proposals, 112-21 missile deployment, effect on NATO future, 134 NATO dual-track deployment deci- sion,107,110-12 1983 draft proposals, 121-23 START integration with, 135 U.S.-Soviet criteria compared, 127-33 verification, 133 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 100-101, 234, 250-52, 262-65,267 International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, 230, 236 Iran, 240n, 271 Iraq, 242, 264, 271, 273 Israel,223,242,244,248,252,265- M 68,273 Italy, 113,273 J Jackson, Henry, 30, 83 Jackson-Warner freeze resolution 59,83 Japan, 232, 236, 238, 240n, 255 Johnson administration, 26-27, 137-40,196 Jupiter missiles, 108 K Kennedy, Edward M., 83, 86 Kennedy administration, 190-96 Kennedy-Hatfield freeze resolution. 83,86,89 Khrushchev, Nikita, 188, 192-95 Killian, James, 188 Kohl, Helmut, 118 Korean airliner incident, 63, 87, 119 Korea (South), 235, 236, 265, 271 Kosygin, Alexei, 139 Kvitsinsky, Yuli, 115-17,120 373 L Lance missiles, 124 Land-based missiles French capability, 16 Soviet capability, 14-15,28 U.S. triad of strategic forces, 5,13, 14,27-28,69,77 See also Intercontinental ballistic missiles; MX missiles Large Optics Demonstration Experi- ment (LODE), 164 Laser isotope separation, 231 Latin American initiative (Treaty of Tlatelolco), 225, 234, 246-48, 270 Launch-on-warning doctrine, 72, 92 Libya, 241, 265, 270-71 Limited Test Ban Treaty, 158, 159, 161,187, 194-96,234,249, 335-38 Linkage issue, 19-20, 59 M-20 missiles, 126 MacMahon Act of 1946,233 Macmillan, Harold, 190,194 McNamara, Robert, 138,139 Mark 12A warhead, 69 Markey, Edward, 83 Middle East, 248 Midgetman missiles, 61, 74, 76-78,91 Military expenditures, 6,68,70-71 Minuteman missiles, 36,40,43,57, 69,71 Minuteman silos, 37, 54, 57, 69, 76 Mirage aircraft, 126 Mirage IV aircraft, 122 Modernization of forces,5,13-15,27- 28,36,61,69-72 and comprehensive test ban, 208-10,214-15 freeze prohibition, 88, 96-97 and SALT II, 36-37, 48-49, 51-52 and START proposals, 76-78 Strategic Defense Initiative, 144-47,149-58,209

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374 Mondale, Walter F., 32, 88, 147, 167-69,204 Monitoring. See Verification Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), 13-16, 26,28, 36 SALT II, 30, 31, 34, 38,47-48,51 Mutual assured destruction (MAD) doctrine, 13, 138, 144, 154 MX missiles, 21, 44, 60-63, 68, 69, 144 freeze restrictions, 91 SALT II, 36, 40, 42-43, 47 START proposals, 74-76, 78 N National Technical Means (NTM), 18 ASAT arms control, 172, 178 comprehensive test ban, 200 Limited Test Ban Treaty, 195 nuclear freeze, 99-101, 104 SALT I ABM Treaty, 143, 148 SALT I Interim Agreement, 29 SALT II Treaty, 34,44,46 START negotiations, 79-80 Negotiating process, 20-22 Netherlands, 134 Neutron bomb, 112, 113 Nicaragua, 247 Nigeria, 248 Nike-X ABM system, 137-39 Nike-Zeus ABM system, 137, 160 Nitze, Paul, 115-17, 120 Nixon administration, 14 SALT agreements, 24-25, 27,29, 44, 136, 140-44 Threshold Test Ban, 187, 196-97 Non-proliferation. See Nuclear non- proliferation Non-Proliferation Treaty. See Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). See Intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) negotiations Norway, 134 Nuclear arms control INDEX negotiating process, 20-22 political or military linkage, 19-20,59 proposals and issues, overview of, 1-4,6-11 public support, 22 stability objectives, 4-6 U.S.-Soviet strategic relationship and, 11-15 See also specific treaties, proposals, issues, and countries Nuclear deterrence, 3, 13-14,26,27, 175-76, 182 Nuclear disarmament, 3 Nuclear freeze, 2, 7-8, 81-106 background, 59-62, 81-88 parity versus inferiority relation- ship, 90-99 provisions, 88-90 Soviet proposals, 60, 67,78, 104-6, 111 verification, 99-104 Nuclear non-proliferation, 222-73 capability versus intention, 232-33 countries not committed to, 265-73 export policies, 237-42 historical background, 233-37 international security concerns, 226-28 physical security convention, 250-51 safeguards, 100-101,251-65 technical capability and, 228-32 test bans and, 222-23, 249-50 Treaty of Tlatelolco, 246-48 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978,236,240,241,250,256, 258,259,261,262 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 27, 140,225 acceptance and criticisms of, 234, 243-46 nuclear export policy, 237, 239, 241-42 and nuclear testing, 196,223,249 safeguards, 100-101,252,258, 260-64 text, 363-68

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INDEX Nuclear power technology, 228-32 Nuclear Suppliers' Guidelines, 235, 237, 238, 240n, 241, 250, 260-62 Nuclear test bans, 88,92-93, 99, 187-99 initial negotiations, 187-90 Limited Test Ban, 158, 159, 161, 194-96,234,249,335-38 and nuclear proliferation issue, 222-23,249-50 obstacles to, 190-94 peaceful nuclear explosions, 193-94, 198-99,203, 345-62 Threshold Test Ban, 56, 102, 196-99,203,204,249, 339-43 treaties and proposals, 187 See also Comprehensive test ban Nuclear tests and determination of nuclear explo- sion effects, 210-12 land and atmospheric tests identifi- cation, 188,215-16 new weapons development, 208-10 peaceful nuclear explosions, 193-94, 198,213-14 of safety devices, 212-13 stockpile reliability, 206-8 tests conducted, 187-88, 191-92 underground tests identification, 189-94, 197-201,205,215-22 U.S. security concerns, 204-6 weapons versus peaceful explo- sions,201-2 Nuclear weapon-free zones, 246-48 Nunn, Sam, 61 o Operation Dominic, 192 Outer Space Treaty, 9-10, 158, 159, 161 p Pakistan, 235, 236, 240n, 244, 248, 249,260,262, 265-67 Palme Commission, 248 Panama Canal, 247 Parity. See Strategic relationships 375 Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs), 193-94, 198, 199,213-14 nuclear power technology, 228-32 safeguards, 261-62 Treaty of Tlatelolco, 246 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) Treaty, 187, 198-99,203-4,249, 345-62 Perimeter acquisition radar (PAR), 141 Pershing I missiles, 121 Pershing 1A missiles, 110, 124, 126, 128 Pershing II missiles, 91 European deployment, 57, 72,107, 110,123-127 INF negotiations, 16, 111, 113, 115, 118, 119, 121, 122, 127, 128, 131, 133 Physical security, 235,250-51 Plutonium, 228-31, 254, 264 Poland, 59 Polaris A1 missiles, 206-7 Polaris missiles, 126 Poseidon C-3 missiles, 71 Poseidon missiles, 36, 70 Poseidon submarines, 69,72, 109 Presidential Directive, 162-63 President's Science Advisory Committee, 188 Pressler, Larry, 168 Project Plowshare, 194,213 Project Vela, 189 R Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT), 182 Radar tracking, 141, 142, 148 and ABM Treaty violations, 53-57, 157, 158 Reactor technology, 228-30, 253-55 Reagan administration on ASAT arms control, 160, 163-77 on comprehensive test ban, 187, 202-4 negotiating strategy, 20-21 on non-proliferation, 237, 239, 257

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3716 Reagan administration (continued) on nuclear freeze, 59,81, 83-85, 91, 102-3,106 on SALT II legal statue, 25, 32, 55 on Soviet treaty compliance, 18-19, 32,52,55-57, 158,204 Strategic Defense Initiative, 15, 144-47,149-58, 165 on U.S.-Soviet strategic relation- ship, 15 on verification requirements, 17 See also Intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) negotiations; Strategic arms reduction talks Reentry vehicles (RVs), 34, 209. See also Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles Repair and replacement build-down, 60-65, 73-74, 76, 78,86 freeze provisions, 88, 93-94 SALT I, 33 Research and development programs, 90 Restructuring of nuclear forces, 8-9 Romania, 113 Rostow, Eugene, 117,202 S S-2 missiles, 126 S-3 missiles, 126 SA-5 air defense systems, 53, 54 Safeguard ABM system, 137, 140-44 Safeguards, 100-101,225,235, 251-65 SAINT anti-satellite program, 160 SALT I ABM Protocol, 144,233-34 SALT I ABM Treaty, 2, 10, 13,21 and ASAT systems, 184-85 background, 24-29, 136, 143-44 compliance record, 18,52-55,57, 158 provisions, 7, 148-49 Senate ratification, 22, 144 space-related provisions, 159, 161 and Strategic Defense Initiative 145, 147, 149-58 INDEX text, 323-34 verification, 17-18, 143, 148 SALT I Interim Agreement, 14, 16, 136,143 background, 24-30 compliance record, 18,52-55,57 provisions, 32-33, 109 Senate ratification, 22, 29-30 text, 279-87 veriBlcation,29 SALT II Joint Statement of Princi- ples,31,33,35,319-20 SALT II Protocol, 31, 33,35,314-15 SALTIITreaty,2, 16,20,21 background, 30-32 compliance record, 18-19, 32, 55-57 non-ratification of, 20, 22, 25, 31-32 provisions, 6, 8,25, 33-35 and strategic parity issue, 14, 35-44 text, 289-321 verification, 17-18, 34-35,44-52 Satellite reconnaissance, 17-18, 26, 179-81,220 See also National Technical Means Satellites. See Anti-satellite (ASAT) arms control; Anti-satellite (ASAT) systems Schmidt, Helmut, 110 Scowcroft, Brent, 61 Sea-based missiles U.S. triad of strategic forces, 5, 13, 14,27-28,69, 77 See also Submarine-launched bal- listic missiles Sea-launched cruise missiles, 35, 63, 67,75 Security concerns nuclear proliferation, 226-28 physical security, 235, 250-51 safeguard measures, 225, 235, 251-65 See also Strategic relationship Seismic monitoring, 189, 193, 197, 200,216-21 Seismic Research Program Advisory Group, 190

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INDEX Sentinel ABM system, 137, 139-40 Short-range attack missiles (SRAMs), 69,71 Shultz, George, 117 "Sixty Years of the USSR" (Andropov), 105 South Africa, 244, 248, 266, 268-69 South Korea, 235, 236, 265, 271 Soviet Union, 233, 270, 271 Afghanistan, invasion of, 19-20, 22,25, 31, 111, 163 Czechoslovakia, invasion of, 27, 140 nuclear tests, 191-92 peaceful nuclear explosions, 213 See also specific treaties, proposals, and issues Space-related treaties, 9-10, 158, 159,161 Space Shuttle, 162, 175, 177 Spartan missiles, 141 Special Commission on Strategic Forces, 60-61 Sprint missiles, 141 SS-4 missiles, 108-11, 120-23, 126 SS-5 missiles, 108-11, 121, 123, 126 SS-9 missiles, 29, 161, 173 SS-11 missiles, 109 SS-16 missiles, 47, 51, 55-57 SS-17 missiles, 68, 91 SS-18 missiles, 29, 43, 68, 91 SS-19 missiles, 39, 43, 53, 54, 68, 91 SS-20 missiles, 47, 51, 91, 107, 110 INF negotiations, 16, 111, 113, 115, 117, 119-23, 126-32 SS-21 missiles, 117 SS-22 missiles, 117,124 SS-23 missiles, 117, 124 SS-N-7 missiles, 68 SS-N-8 missiles, 68 SS-N-18 missiles, 68 SS-NX-20 missiles, 68 SS-X-25 missiles, 55-57 Standing Consultative Commission (SCC), 34-35,46,50,52-53, 104, 143, 149 STARFISH test, 192 START negotiations. See Strategic arms reduction talks 377 "Star Wars" speech, 145 Stealth bomber, 69, 75,76, 78,91, 98 Stockpile reliability, 206-8 Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. See SALT I ABM Treaty; SALT I Interim Agreement; SALT II Treaty Strategic Arms Reductions Talks (START), 2, 21, 58-80 background, 58-59 INF integration with, 135 initial proposals, 59-65 Soviet position, 67 U.S. position, 7, 8, 65-66 and U.S.-Soviet strategic relation- ship, 15,67-79 verification, 17,79-80 Strategic Defense Initiative, 15, 144-47, 149-58, 165, 185,209 Strategic relationship ASAT capabilities, 159, 161, 163 and comprehensive test ban, 204-15 counterforce doctrine, 14, 92 countervailing strategy, 14 deterrence, 3, 13-14,26,27, 175-76, 182 essential equivalence, 14,27 European nuclear balance, 123-27 and freeze proposals, 90-99 mutual assured destruction, 13, 138,144, 154 overview, 11-15,25-28 and SALT II, 35-44 and START proposals, 67-79 "sufficiency" policy, 14,27, 140 Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers SALT I Interim Agreement, 29, 33 SALT II, 30, 33,34, 38, 47,50-51 START proposals, 67 Submarine-launched ballistic mis- siles (SLBMs) British and French capabilities, 16 freeze proposals, 96-97 SALT II, 39 Soviet capability, 28, 68, 91, 109 Submarines, 264

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378 Submarines (continued) antisubmarine warfare, 94, 97,98 British and French capabilities, 16 freeze proposals, 88,93,98 Soviet capability, 68, 109 U.S. capability, 70, 71 See also specific submarine types "Sufficiency" policy, 14,27, 140 Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), 136, 137 Sweden, 233, 238, 257, 258 Switzerland, 113,238,272 T Taiwan, 265, 271 Talon Gold pointing and tracking system, 164 Technology transfers, 260. See also Nuclear non-proliferation Telemetry, encryption of, 34,46,50, 55-56, 66,79 Test bans. See Comprehensive test ban; Nuclear test bans Tests. See Nuclear tests Thermonuclear primaries, 207, 208 Thor missiles, 108, 160-61 Threshold Test Ban Treaty, 56, 102, 187, 190-91, 196-99,203,204, 249, 339-43 Throw-weight capability, 58, 62, 72,76 Timely warning, 255-56 Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear W Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco), 225, 234, 246-48,270 Trident C-4 missiles, 69 Trident I missiles, 36,71-72, 78 Trident II missiles, 16, 36,75,76,78, 91,97,98 Trident II D-5 missiles, 63, 67, 127 Trident submarines, 36, 63, 67-69, 72 Tsongas, Paul, 166 Typhoon submarines, 68, 91 U U-2 aircraft incident, 190 Underground test bans. See Compre- INDEX hensive test ban; Nuclear test bans Union of Concerned Scientists, 165 United Kingdom. See Britain United Nations General Assembly, 87,106, 164, 193 Uranium, 228-31, 253-55 V Vance, Cyrus, 199 Verification, 17-18,26 ~ ASAT arms control, 172-74, 176- 78, 182-84 identification of nuclear explosions, 188,215-16 INF negotiations, 133 laser isotope separation plants, 231 Limited Test Ban Treaty, 195 nuclear freeze, 99-104 peaceful nuclear explosions, 198, 203-4 safeguards, 100-101,225,235, 251-65 SALT I ABM Treaty, 143, 148 SALT I Interim Agreement, 29 SALT II Treaty, 34-35,44-52 START negotiations, 79-80 Threshold Test Ban, 203-4 Treaty of Tlatelolco, 247 underground nuclear explosions, 189-94, 197-201,205,215-22 Vulcan aircraft, 126 "Walk in the park" proposal, 120-21 "Walk in the woods" formula, 115-16 Warner, John, 83 Weapons laboratories, 195,214-15 Weinberger, Caspar, 84, 145 West Germany, 113, 120, 134 and non-proliferation, 232, 235, 240n, 255, 260, 272 X X-ray lasers, 209 z Zero-option proposal, 113, 114