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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings THE MARKEY SCHOLARS CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS George R. Reinhart, Editor Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Programs in Biomedical Sciences Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs Division NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. 98-1 between the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09173-X (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53101-2 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION OF THE LUCILLE P. MARKEY CHARITABLE TRUST PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Enriqueta Bond (IOM), Burroughs-Wellcome Fund, Chair William T. Butler (IOM), Baylor College of Medicine Elaine K. Gallin, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Mary-Lou Pardue (NAS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Georgine Pion, Vanderbilt University Lee Sechrest, University of Arizona Lloyd H. Smith (IOM), University of California, San Francisco (Ret.) Virginia V. Weldon (IOM), Monsanto Company (Ret.) James Wyngaarden (IOM), Duke University (Ret.) Staff George R. Reinhart, Senior Project Officer Elaine Lawson, Project Officer Stacey Kozlouski, Research Assistant Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, Administrative Assistant Heather Begg, Program Assistant
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings Preface and Acknowledgments In 1997, as the 15-year term of the Lucille P.Markey Charitable Trust neared its end, the Trust approached the National Academies to conduct an evaluation of its major programs in biomedical science. The Academies agreed to undertake a project evaluating Markey Trust programs that supported the education and research of predoctoral students in clinical research, promising young biomedical investigators in postdoctoral and junior faculty positions, and senior researchers in the basic biomedical sciences. For a more complete description of the Markey Trust and some of its activities, please refer to Bridging the Bed-Bench Gap: Contributions of the Markey Trust, published by the National Academies Press in 2004. The Markey Trust supported postdoctoral fellows, especially at their time of transition to junior faculty, through two programs: Scholar Awards in Biomedical Sciences. By establishing the Markey Scholars program in 1984, the Trustees recognized that top priority should be given to the support of young researchers as they moved from postdoctoral into junior faculty positions. The goal was to enable the Scholars to conduct independent research early in their careers. Between 1985 and 1991, a total of 113 Markey Scholars were supported for up to 3 years of postdoctoral training followed by 5 years as beginning faculty members. This support included both salary and research funding.
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings United Kingdom and Australian Visiting Fellows. In addition to the Scholars program, the Trustees supported outstanding young scientists from the United Kingdom and Australia by enabling them to spend 2 years as postdoctoral fellows at American research institutions. A total of 36 Visiting Fellows—26 from the United Kingdom and 10 from Australia—were selected between 1986 through 1994. This is the second of five reports to emerge from the evaluation of the Markey Trust. As part of its assessment of the Markey Trust, the NRC hosted a scientific conference for Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico on June 28-30, 2002. The purpose of the conference was to enable the Scholars and Fellows to share their research experiences, just as they did at the annual Scholars Conferences previously conducted by the Markey Trust. All of the attending Scholars and Fellows submitted abstracts of their poster sessions. Six scholars, along with other experts in the biomedical sciences, made formal presentations. The report contains two sections and a set of appendixes. The first section presents selected formal papers presented at the conference both by invited guests and by selected Markey Scholars. The second section presents abstracts of the scientific poster sessions. The appendixes present conference-related material on the agenda and participants. The statements made in the enclosed papers are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent positions of the National Research Council (NRC). This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of the selected papers: Wendy Baldwin, University of Kentucky; Wendy Havran, The Scripps Research Institute; David Hockenbery, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute; Agnes Kane, Brown University; and Peter Scacheri, National Institutes of Health. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors.
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings The project was aided by the invaluable help of the BHEW professional staff—George R. Reinhart, senior project officer; Elaine Lawson, project officer; Stacey Kozlouski, research assistant, Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, administrative assistant, and Heather Begg, program assistant. Enriqueta Bond, Chair Committee on the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings Contents Selected Invited Conference Papers Markey Scholars Update Krystyna Isaacs, Ph.D. 3 Ensuring the Future Participation of Women in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Shirley M. Tilghman, Ph.D. 7 The Future of Non-profit Funding in Biomedical Research Gerald M. Rubin, Ph.D. 13 New Directions in Genomic Research Janet D. Rowley, M.D. 24 Papers Presented by Markey Scholars Functional Genomics George D. Yancopoulos, M.D., Ph.D. 31 Electrophysiology of Synapses Daniel V. Madison, Ph.D. 42
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The Markey Scholars Conference: Proceedings Transcription, Chromatin Assembly, and Homologous Recombination in Chromatin James T. Kadonaga, Ph.D. 50 The New Biology David C. Schwartz, Ph.D. 73 Signal Transduction in Bacteria Ann Stock, Ph.D. 80 AAK1, A Novel Kinase That Regulates Cargo Selection for Clatherin-Mediated Endocytosis Sandra Louise Schmid, Ph.D. 90 Abstracts of Poster Sessions 99 Appendixes A Conference Agenda 155 B Speakers’ Biographical Sketches 159 C Conference Participants 162