TABLE 1 Chronology of Turning Points

Country or Region

Date

Europe, North America

1850

Malaysia

1850

Thailand

1850

Mexico

1876

Japan

1880

Taiwan

1895

Philippines

1900

Korea

1910

People’s Republic of China

1949

Indonesia

1965

 

SOURCE: Reynolds (1985).

disenchantment with, and resentment of, dependence on international technology. This situation demonstrates that “inappropriate” and “appropriate” technologies are short-lived in relation to the cultural impact of “inappropriate” education and an “inappropriate” national ethos in science and technology.

Gross National Product and Growth Rates

Globalization of industries has caused rapid growth rates of the gross national product (GNP) in the Pacific region. This is largely because of a belated and accelerated entry into the industrial era, similar to but faster than earlier growth phases in Europe and North America. Reynolds (1985) has identified turning points in different nations and regions, when growth of per capita income began to exceed population growth and began real growth (see Table 1). His chronology of these points starts with a first boom from 1850 to 1914 and culminates in the second boom, the golden age of growth, from 1945 to 1973. Some remarkably early turning points in the Pacific region were largely due to primary product exports—sugar, rubber, and minerals—stimulated by industrialization in the West. Growth rate statistics for recent years reveal how globalization affected industries in the Pacific region (see Table 2 and Figures 2 and 3).

Japan, Oceania, the newly industrializing Asian nations (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) collectively grew by 6 percent, and their manufacturing industries grew by 7.2 percent per annum. In relative terms, the ASEAN nations, the Asian NICs, and Mexico have growth rates that exceed those of the advanced countries, although the base from which they began was low. By 1986 Japan had overtaken all advanced nations in rate of growth and all but the United States in per capita gross domestic product. Australia



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