TABLE 6 Historical Trade Patterns of Selected Countries, Import/Export Ratio

 

Type of Production

Country

Raw Materials

Refined Materials

Processed Materials

Manufactured Goods

Machinery

Total

United States

1972

1.28

1.05

1.46

2.08

0.82

1.16

1975

2.22

0.58

0.93

1.54

0.54

0.90

1979

2.85

0.74

1.13

2.21

0.77

1.23

Japan

1972

23.29

3.70

0.34

0.33

0.18

0.82

1975

22.57

12.62

0.27

0.46

0.14

1.03

1979

42.79

13.81

0.43

0.66

0.15

1.07

South Korea

1972

4.90

4.70

1.13

0.13

4.42

1.55

1975

9.82

1.51

1.06

0.10

2.68

1.43

1979

18.39

1.38

0.89

0.14

1.90

1.34

Malaysia

1971

0.29

1.14

0.98

4.03

9.57

0.80

1974

0.23

0.92

1.34

1.42

7.11

0.97

1979

0.22

0.55

1.37

1.32

2.39

0.76

 

SOURCE: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1984, p. 105).

raw material resources—with the possible exception of liquid fuels—and the necessary human resources. All the nations have demonstrated that they can cope with technological change—something that cannot be asserted with equal confidence in other parts of the world. Indeed, despite earlier revolutionary rumblings in Malaysia and Indonesia, rising prosperity has given the area remarkable political stability compared with that in parts of South America and Africa. The trend toward prosperity is continuing.

Even with the rosy spectacles of this generalization, the question arises of just how far the complementarity of the different countries goes and what happens when all are highly industrialized and skill based. Obviously, there will be no definitive answer to this question for years. But some of the likely problems can be illuminated by a look at countries that are representative of both a particular problem and a particular group of countries in the region.

ASEAN AND COMPLEMENTARITY: GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURING

Strengths and Characteristics

The strengths of the ASEAN economies lie in their raw materials, cheap labor, and the export-oriented strategy of all five countries,3 particularly that



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