Index

A

Advanced materials

in automotive industry, 8, 81

carbon fibers, 10, 42, 179

ceramics, 44

in construction, 1, 71–72

discovery-application interval, 6, 41–43

instrumentation for studying, 42

lithium niobate, 52

market influences on discoveries, 6, 42

neodymium, 42–43

processing costs, 6–7, 43

shape-memory alloy, 179

See also Superconducting materials

Agriculture

ASEAN, 119–121

trade by Pacific Economic Community, 116

value added, global trends, 116

Alvey Directorate, 33

Artificial intelligence

applications, 26, 50, 51, 73, 81

concepts, 50–51

influence on information technologies, 50–51

Asian newly industrializing countries growth rates, 110–112, 114

See also specific countries

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

agricultural growth, 119–121

GNP and growth rate, 110–114

manufacturing growth, 119–121

problems and challenges, 9, 120–121

science and technology, 121

strengths and characteristics, 119–121

trade policy, 120–121

Australia

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

agricultural resources, 128

education, 126

GNP and growth rate, 111–114, 143

industrialization policies, 129–131

intellectual property, 130

manufacturing industries, 128

mining industry, 127–128

problems and challenges, 9, 121, 132–133

production sharing, 132

R&D, 129–131

resource development and technology transfer, 121, 127–129

science development and structure, 126, 129–131

trade policy, 132

wage levels, 128, 132

Automotive industry

automation, 84

computer applications and production, 81, 83



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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Index A Advanced materials in automotive industry, 8, 81 carbon fibers, 10, 42, 179 ceramics, 44 in construction, 1, 71–72 discovery-application interval, 6, 41–43 instrumentation for studying, 42 lithium niobate, 52 market influences on discoveries, 6, 42 neodymium, 42–43 processing costs, 6–7, 43 shape-memory alloy, 179 See also Superconducting materials Agriculture ASEAN, 119–121 trade by Pacific Economic Community, 116 value added, global trends, 116 Alvey Directorate, 33 Artificial intelligence applications, 26, 50, 51, 73, 81 concepts, 50–51 influence on information technologies, 50–51 Asian newly industrializing countries growth rates, 110–112, 114 See also specific countries Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) agricultural growth, 119–121 GNP and growth rate, 110–114 manufacturing growth, 119–121 problems and challenges, 9, 120–121 science and technology, 121 strengths and characteristics, 119–121 trade policy, 120–121 Australia added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 agricultural resources, 128 education, 126 GNP and growth rate, 111–114, 143 industrialization policies, 129–131 intellectual property, 130 manufacturing industries, 128 mining industry, 127–128 problems and challenges, 9, 121, 132–133 production sharing, 132 R&D, 129–131 resource development and technology transfer, 121, 127–129 science development and structure, 126, 129–131 trade policy, 132 wage levels, 128, 132 Automotive industry automation, 84 computer applications and production, 81, 83

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives economic importance, 82–83 employee training, 84 flexible manufacturing systems, 83, 84 Japanese, 83 management role, 84 materials consumption, 82–83 production organization, 83–84 robotics, 83, 84 technological advances in, 8, 81, 83 U.S., 82–83 B Board of the Cartagena Agreement, 154 Brazil competitiveness, 177 economic weight, 142, 144 productivity, 165 C Canada added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 GNP and growth rate, 111–112, 143 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 Capital investment, displacement by financial speculation, 27 Caribbean countries competitiveness, 149–151 domestic demand, production, and technology, 151–153 economic growth obstacles and strategies, 152–153 economic weight of, 142–145 industrialization policy, 148–149 integration of science and technology, 156–157 interdependence with developed countries, 148 participation in world economy, 147–151 technology development strategies, 9, 153–155 technology transfer, 155–156 trade asymmetry, 148 unemployment, 152 wage rates, 152 China, see People’s Republic of China Communications, see Data processing and communications; Telecommunications; Telephony Competitiveness, see International competitiveness/comparative advantage Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) in automotive industry, 81 in construction, 7, 69–71, 78 expert systems applications, 70–71, 78 initial graphics exchange specification, 70 in manufacturing, 8, 81, 82 robotics, 74–75 standardization, 70 three-dimensional, 70–71 in very-large-scale-integration technology, 46–47 Computers and computer systems costs, 38, 59, 60 digitalization, 62, 63 employment and, 13, 24 expert systems, 4, 70–71, 73–75, 78 fifth-generation, 33 human interface, 37–38, 40, 49, 50 influences on information technologies, 48–49 integrated software-hardware, 24, 37, 49 manufacturing industry applications, 8, 82 memory and processing power, 37, 38, 48–51 parallel processing architectures, 49–51 personal computers, 37, 38, 59, 60 productivity and, 13 quality control applications, 76 reduced-instruction-set, 49, 51 security for, 66 standards, 20, 40 use by white-collar workers, 59, 60 VLSI applications in, 48, 49, 59 See also Artificial intelligence; Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM); Software; Supercomputers Construction advanced materials in, 1, 71–72 automation, 7, 73–75, 78–79 computer applications, 7, 69–71, 73–76, 78–79 economic importance, 68–69

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives equipment and methods, 7, 71–73 fast-track, 70, 75 first-of-a-kind projects, 77 heavy, 68–70 industrial sector, 69 laser applications in, 71 management methods, 7, 75–77, 78–79 manufacturing contrasted with, 68 markets, impact of technology on, 77–78 off site fabrication, assembly, and modularization, 7, 72–73 potential for change in, 69 productivity increases, 7 quality control, 76 research programs, 73, 78 residential and commercial sectors, 69, 70 robotics applications, 7, 72, 73, 78 slipforming practices, 71 technological advances in, 7, 68–79 welding automation, 73, 74–75 Cooperation, see International technological cooperation D Data bases for construction management, 75 software needs, 51, 67 Data processing and communications advances in, 7, 58–59 applications, 59, 71, 78 electronic equipment production globally, 46 fiber optics applications in, 52 needs, 34, 58 semiconductor component consumption, 46 use rates, 59 See also Computers and computer systems; Telecommunications Developed countries production sharing by, 101–103 technological innovations in manufacturing, 25 See also specific countries Developing countries economic growth strategies, 6, 9, 25, 30–31 effects of technological cooperation on, 6 gross domestic product, 144 indebtedness, 27, 102–103 natural resources development, 6, 31 population growth, 30 production sharing in, 64, 87–101 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 87 See also specific countries E Economic growth/restructuring capital investment role, 161–162 in developing countries, strategies, 25, 30–31 GNP and rate of, 110–113 government role in, 4, 10, 168–169 industry role in, 4 in Japan, 9, 28–29, 137 key technologies for, 24 macroeconomic environment for, 169–175 manufacturing role in, 4, 165–167 in Mexico, 92–93 obstacles to, 4, 28 in Pacific Rim countries, 9, 107–119 strategies, 4, 25, 30–31, 159–175 technological advances and, 1, 3, 9–10, 23–31, 160–161, 167–168, 178–180 in U.S., 9–10, 28, 159–175 in Western Europe, 29 Education and training of automotive industry blue-collar workers, 84 engineering, 5 government role in providing, 168 international cooperation through, 34, 137 on policy matters, 5 for telecommunications jobs, 64 Electronic fund transfers, regulation of, 20 Electronics equipment production globally, 45, 46 military applications, 17 superconductor applications, 44 See also Microcircuits; Very-large-scale-integration technology Employment advanced manufacturing technologies and, 1, 23–24

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives computerization and, 13, 23–24 in integrated circuit industry, 48 in Mexico, 91, 95, 97–98, 104 R&D, 146 in U.S., 91–92 Western European, 29, 171 of women, 97–98 See also Labor markets Engineers employment in R&D, 146 professional societies, 21–22 role in advancing technology, 11, 21–22 Europe, Eastern R&D expenditures, 146 Warsaw Pact, 18 Europe, Western application of new technologies, 29 basic scientific research, 30, 36 BRITE project, 36 competitiveness, 29, 30, 35 economic strengths and weaknesses, 5, 29 electronic equipment production by industry, 46 employment, 29, 171 EUREKA Program, 30 industry cooperation in R&D, 33 labor productivity, 29 manufacturing industry structural changes, 85, 88 NATO, 18 production sharing in Mexico, 95 protectionism, 88 public procurement policies, 30 quality of products, 29 R&D support, 6, 35–36, 146 subsidization of industry, 29 unifying processes, 29 technological cooperation in, 6, 18, 33, 35–36 See also specific countries European Economic Community (EEC) employment, civilian, 172 funding of R&D programs, 136 Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee, 35–36 R&D program, 6, 35–36 unifying role, 6, 29, 33, 35 European Nuclear Energy Agency, encouragement of technology flow, 25 European Organization for Nuclear Research, 30 European Strategic Program for Research and Development in Information Technology, 33 F Federal Republic of Germany capital investment rate, 161 construction importance in, 69 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 productivity growth, 161 R&D expenditures, 145–146 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 Fiber optics development, 47, 51, 52 electro-optical directional coupler, 52 influence on information technologies, 42, 51–53 market influences on development of, 42 technology transfer from semiconductor industry, 42 telecommunications applications, 27, 32, 51–54 Fiji, GNP and growth rate, 111, 144 Financial markets annual turnover, 27 volume of foreign currency transactions, 27 Finland, robotics technology, 75 France capital investment rate, 161 GNP, 143 gross domestic product, 164 military R&D, 146 productivity growth rate, 161 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 93, 100, 115 H Honeywell Inc., international laboratory, 34 Hong Kong added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives comparative advantage by industry, 117–118 GNP and growth rate, 111, 113–114, 143 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 93 I IBM Corporation international laboratory, 34, 43 System/360, 48 superconductor research, 43 Indonesia added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143 sociopolitical character, 119, 121 Industrial globalization government role in, 31 GNP and growth rate, 110–113 historical, 106 mode for technology, 109–110 multinational corporation role in, 30–31 obstacles to, see Protectionism in Pacific Rim countries, 106–138 predictions, 12–22 product cycle, 107–109 through production sharing, 86–104 and structural change, 7, 113–119 in telecommunications sector, 64–65 theoretical construct, 107–118 Information flows across borders, 20–21 control of, 20 manufacturing dependence on, 20–21 Information technologies applications, 7, 45, 54–59; see also Data processing and communications; Telephony benefits, 1, 7, 12–13 competition in, 25 convergence of service modes in, 62–63 costs of installations, 19 discovery-application interval, 25 economic impacts, 19 effect on other technologies, 3, 45, 64, 167 government involvement in, 20 influences of cutting-edge technologies on, 7, 45–54 inventions and inventors, 47 policy problems created by, 20 private sector role, 20 societal impacts, 19, 59–61 standards, 20, 54 structural changes created by, 64 See also Computers and computer systems; Fiber optics; Networks/ networking; Software; Very-large-scale-integration technology Innovation diffusion, 5 importance of cooperative agreements, 5 lead countries, 27 in production, 25 rates, 1, 25 See also Technological advances Integrated circuits, see Microcircuits; Very-large-scale-integration technology Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), 154 International competitiveness/comparative advantage changing nature of, 1, 86 factors affecting, 149–150 indicators, 117–118 by industry group and country, 117–119 in information technologies, 25 Japanese, 80, 117–119, 135–137 macroeconomic environment for, 169–175 in manufacturing, 177 of mature industries, 24–25 in microelectronics, 25 research and development and, 146 strategies, 86, 149–151 U.S., 10, 93–94, 117–119, 165, 169–175 Western European, 29 See also specific countries International Monetary Fund, 26 International Research for Development Center of Canada, 154 International technological cooperation in academia, 33, 34 by Australia, 132–133 on basic science research, 18 communication technologies contributing to, 32

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives consortia, 26 contributing factors, 4, 33, 35 effects on developing countries, 6 in Europe, 6, 35–36 foreign nationals in U.S. graduate programs, 34 government role in, 6, 21 in information technologies, 60 innovation and, 5 joint ventures, 4, 6, 26, 32, 33, 94; see also Production sharing in Latin America, 150–151 licensing agreements, 26, 32 marketing organizations, 6, 32 mechanisms for exchange of views, 2 multinational corporation role in, 6, 32, 132–133 North American-Western European-Japanese triad, 5, 27–28 obstacles to, 5, 6, 33–34 overseas R&D organizations, 32 predictions, 5–6, 13–14 on space exploration, 18 strategies, 6, 27–28, 34 transnational mergers, 1, 26 trends, 5, 6, 32–34 Inventions in information technologies, 47 Italy contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 restoration of mature industries in, 24–25 J Japan agriculture, 116 automotive industry, 83 basic research at universities, 35 capital investment rate, 161 cellular phone penetration, 58–59 commercialization of new technologies, 10, 11, 28, 29, 130, 178–180 competitiveness/comparative advantage, 80, 117–119, 135–137, 177–179 construction industry, 69, 78 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 cultural barriers to cooperative efforts, 33 economic growth obstacles and strategies, 5, 9, 10, 28–29, 137, 142–143, 173 education infrastructure, 137 electronic equipment production, 46 employment, civilian, 172 energy saving/antipollution industry, 178 export dependence, 5, 28 fifth-generation computer project, 33 GATT, 115 GNP and growth rate, 10, 110–114, 142, 143, 160, 178, 179 industrial restructuring in, 115–116 industry cooperation in R&D, 33 investment and technology transfer strategies, 133–135 manufacturing industry structural changes, 88, 116, 166, 179–180 military R&D, 146 Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 33 production sharing in Mexico, 95 productivity, 161, 166 protectionism, 116 quality control, 180 raw materials consumption, 26 R&D support in, 6, 35, 145–146 robotics technology, 74 savings rate, 169 South Korean investments by, 123 tax system, 173 trade and tariff policies, 115, 121, 136–137 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 L Labor markets construction, 7 skill mismatches, 7, 23–24 structural changes internationally, 103–104 Third World, 102 worker displacement by production sharing, 101 Laser technology in construction industry, 71, 73 semiconductor, 42 Latin America competitiveness, 9, 147, 149–151 cooperative efforts, 150–151 domestic demand, production, and technology, 151–153

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives economic growth, 9, 111, 147–151, 153–157 economic weight of, 142–145 GNP and growth rate, 111 gross domestic product, 144 industrialization policy, 148–149 interdependence with developed countries, 148 international influences on, 141 raw materials, 151 R&D, 146 science and technology policy, 156–157 technology development strategies, 9, 153–155 technology transfer, 155–156 trade asymmetry, 148 unemployment, 152 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 152 Local area networks, fiber optics applications, 52, 53 M Malaysia added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 comparative advantage by industry, 117–119 GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143 political stability, 119 U.S. 806/807 imports from, 89 Management construction, advances in, 7, 75 in manufacturing, importance, 7, 81, 84 Manufacturing industries apparel, 90, 98 ASEAN, 119–121 automation and robotization, 8, 24, 82 competitors, major companies, 177 computer applications, 8, 81, 82 construction industry contrasted with, 68 consumer demands, 8, 81 economic growth role of, 165–167 effects of advanced technologies on, 1, 5, 8, 81–82 employee demands, 8, 81 employment, 116 in Europe, 85 flexible systems, 8, 82 209 high-tech, 87 importance, 5, 24 information flows across borders, 20–21 Japanese competitiveness in, 80, 178–180 management changes, 7, 81, 84 military technologies applied to, 18 patient capital for, 8, 85 product changes and challenges, 24, 25, 80–81 productivity, 166–167 public attitudes toward, 80 quality control, 180 R&D, 165 rejuvenation of mature sectors, 24–25 service sector dependence on and competition with, 8, 24, 85, 165 small-scale, 82 structural changes in, 2–3, 23, 25, 80–85 traditional, 87 in U.S., 68, 85, 90–91, 116, 165–166, 168, 171–172 value added, global trends, 116 See also Automotive industry; Production; Production sharing Maquiladoras access to U.S. markets, 90–92 assembly industry and production, 95–96 , 98–101 labor force and, 97–98, 104 locations in Mexico, 95 Mexican economy and, 96–97 regulation of, 94–95 See also Production sharing Materials science advances in, 41–44 basic science contributions to, 42 See also Advanced materials Mexico added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 border industrialization program, 94, 97–98 competitiveness, enhancement, 99–100 economy, 91–93, 96–97, 142 employment, 91, 95, 97–98, 104 GNP and growth rate, 92, 110, 143 production sharing with U.S., 8, 87–103 trade policy, 93, 94, 100–101

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 88–89 wage rates, 93, 98, 165 See also Maquiladoras Microcircuits chip component density, 45 competition in, 25 discovery-application interval, 25 dynamic random access memory chips, 47–48 feature size and design complexity, 46, 48, 63 interconnection and packaging, 47 obsolescence, 63 production facilities, 47–48, 77 telecommunications applications, 7, 57, 63 three-dimensional, 47 worker-years in design of, 46 See also Semiconductors; Very-large-scale-integration technology Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, 33 Military technology defense systems, 17 electronic equipment production globally, 46 European, 17 expenditures, 16 first-strike capabilities, 16–17 manufacturing applications, 18 national security, 19 peacetime spin-offs, 4, 17–18 predictions, 4, 17–18 semiconductor component consumption, 46 strategic nuclear weaponry, 13, 16; see also Nuclear weapons technology U.S., 35 verification systems, 17 Models/modeling, economic development dynamics in Pacific Rim countries, 107–119 Multinational corporations examination of condition and future of, 15–16 role in promoting technological development, 3–4, 30–31, 132 size, importance of, 5, 25 subsidiaries, 32 technology trading, 15 transnational joint ventures, 4, 6; see also Production sharing U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 N Natural resources Australian, development of, 127–129 consumption by industrialized nations, 30 in developing countries, 31 Neodymium, processing costs, 42–43 Networks/networking access to, 20 bit rates needed for, 53 in construction industry, 71, 76, 78 electronic fund transfers, 20 fiber optic applications in, 51, 53–54 government role in, 20–21 influences on information technologies, 53–54 integrated services digital network, 53 ISDN/broadband, 54 intelligent nodes, 54 need for, 60 standards for, 20 subscriber, 52; see also Television two-way national in U.S., impacts, 19–20 See also Local area networks New Zealand, GNP and growth rate, 111–112 , 114, 143 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), technology trading with Warsaw Pact countries, 18 Nuclear weapons technology predicted patterns, 17 social impacts, 13 O Office automation labor market effects of, 23–24, 64 See also Word processing Organization of American States (OAS) Regional Scientific and Technological Development Program, 154 P Pacific Economic Community (PEC) characteristics, 107 GNP and growth rate, 9, 110–113, 137–138 , 143

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives goods, 107 Japanese influence in, 114 product cycle, 107–109, 114 regional and national consequences of globalizing industries of, 9, 106–138 structural change from industrial globalization, 113–119 U.S. influence in, 114 theoretical construct, 9, 107–118 trade growth, 107 trade liberalization, 114 transfer of technology in, 9, 109–110 See also Association of Southeast Asian Nations; and specific countries Papua, New Guinea, GNP and growth rate, 111, 144 Particle accelerators, international cooperation on, 4, 18 Patent and copyright protection for software, 64, 126 People’s Republic of China, 28 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 GNP and growth rate, 110–111, 113–114 , 143 industrialization, 138 superconductor research, 43 Philippines added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 agriculture trade problems, 120–121 GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143 sociopolitical character, 121 U.S. 806/807 imports from, 89 Privacy protection concerns, 7, 67 responsibility for, 20 Private sector dissemination of advanced technology, 14–15 influence on directions of commercial technology, 19 role in developing and using technology, 3 See also Multinational corporations Production automotive industry, 83–84 employee-oriented, 83–84 raw materials consumption, 5, 26–27 small-scale units, advantages, 25 structural changes in, 23 technological innovations in, 25 Production sharing advantages, 1, 8, 87, 90–94, 99, 101 by Australia, 132 dependency issue, 8, 98–99 disadvantages, 8, 95–99, 101 employment and, 8, 97–98 evolution and growth, 87–88, 95 industry life cycles and, 87 linkages with national economy in host country, 96–97 organizational arrangements, 89–90, 94–95 policy objectives, 99–103 principal participants, 88 siting factors, 90–94 on software development, 64 tariffs, U.S., 88–89 technology transfer through, 97 by U.S. with Mexico, 8, 87–103 See also Maquiladoras Productivity advanced manufacturing technologies and, 1 computerization and, 13 in construction, strategies for increasing, 7 Japanese, 160, 161 labor requirements and, 152 U.S., 160–161 Western European, 29, 161 Professional engineering societies, role in policy formation, 21–22 Protectionism between companies, 33–34 disadvantages, 27, 102 Japanese, 116 R&D as, 106–107 role in industrialization, 109 trends, 14 U.S., 126, 174, 175 Public sector influence on civilian commercial technology, 19 role in economic growth, 168–169 role in information flow and processing, 20 Q Quality of life, improvement through technology, 1, 10, 177–180

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives R Republic of Korea added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 competitiveness, 117–119, 126, 177 education in, 124, 126 foreign investment value in, 123–124 GNP and growth rate, 112–114, 121, 143 growth strategies, 122–126, 130 Japanese influence in, 122 problems and challenges, 9, 126 science R&D, 124, 126 technology acquisition, 121–125 trade policies, 121 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 93, 165 Research and development (R&D) academic, 6, 34–35 BRITE project, 36 and comparative advantage in international trade, 146–147 in construction, 7 employment in, 146 EUREKA Program, 30 European, 6, 35–36, 145–146 expenditures, 3, 6, 145–146 Japanese, 6, 35, 145–146 industry, 6, 32–34, 35 international cooperation in, 32–34 military, 146 obstacles to, 36 support for, 34–35 U.S., 6, 35, 145–146 See also Scientific research Robotics/robots articulated, for welding, 74 combined with computer-aided design/ manufacturing, 74–75 construction applications, 7, 72–75, 78 costs, 75 job losses to, 64 manufacturing applications, 8 military applications, 17 quality control impacts, 76 remotely controlled for hazardous environments, 74 in U.S., 74 S Scientific research contributions to materials science, 42 cross-disciplinary approach, 5 data sharing, scientists views on, 18–19 government decision-making role on, 19 predicted patterns, 18 Western European, 30 See also Research and development Security information integrity, 7, 67 in telecommunications, 7, 66–67 Semiconductor industry contributions to fiber optics, 42 U.S.-Japanese competition, 135 Semiconductors complementary metal-oxide, 48 consumption globally by industry, 45, 46 telecommunications applications, 57 Service sector, dependence on manufacturing industry, 85, 165 Singapore added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 93, 177 Software advances, 6, 37–40 business applications, 38 costs, 64 crisis, 7, 49, 51, 63–64 demand, 64 development projects, 39 developmental boundaries for industry, 6, 38 employment opportunities, 64 engineering, definition, 38 human interface, 37–38, 50 industry applications, 50 influences on information technologies, 49–51 for large computer systems, 38 management and planning, 50 methodology and tools, 51 patent and copyright protection, 64, 126 for personal computers, 38 programming languages, 6, 39–40, 49–51 , 64

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives reliability, 66 reusable, 50 rigidification in development, 6, 40 standardization, 20, 40, 51, 65 telecommunications, 20, 63–64 technological advances contributing to advances in, 38 See also Artificial intelligence South Korea, see Republic of Korea Soviet Union construction importance in, 69 economic needs, 17 economic weight, 142, 145 nuclear first-strike potential and capabilities, 16–17 Space exploration international cooperation on, 4, 18 manned exploration of Mars, 18 Standards/standardization in computer-assisted design, 70 in computer hardware and software, 20, 40, 65 economics of, 65 in information technologies, basis, 54, 65–66 obstacles to, 65 open system interconnection, 54, 55, 65 responsibility for setting, 20 in telecommunications, 20, 55, 58, 65–66 Supercomputers, Cray XMP, 48 Superconducting materials applications, 6, 26, 43–44 discovery-applications interval, 43 high-temperature, 43, 44 Sweden cellular phone penetration, 58–59 social impact of information technologies, 59–60 T Taiwan comparative advantage, 117–118, 177 GNP and growth rate, 112–113 growth turning point, 110 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89 wage rates, 93, 165 Tariffs ASEAN, 120 213 Australian, 129 GATT, 93, 100, 115 Republic of Korea, 124 U.S. policy 807/808, 88–90, 103 Taxation, 170–171, 173 Technological advances acceptance by workers, 76–77, 178 availability, 11, 13 commercialization, 10, 11, 28, 29, 33 comparative advantage, 146–147; see also International competitiveness/ comparative advantage in construction, 68–79 discovery-application interval, 25, 41–42 economic restructuring and, 1, 3, 23–31, 160–161, 167–168, 178–180 engineers’ role in policy formation, 11, 21 financial market effects of, 27 free-market forces in, 19 globalization, mode of, 109–110 government influence on and responses to, 3, 4–5, 19, 21 human-level changes from, 2–3 indicators of potential for, 154 institutional-level changes, 2 international cooperation and, 13 international-level changes from, 2, 26–27 life cycle, 107–109 in manufacturing, 5 military, 16; see also Military technology national-level changes from, 2 negative effects, 152 obsolescence, 33, 65, 131 positive effects, 151–152 predictions, 4 private sector influences on, 3–4, 19 proprietary advantage, 33–34; see also Protectionism public attitudes on, 3 quality of life improvements through, 11, 177–180 raw materials consumption and, 5, 26–27 rejuvenation of mature sectors, 24–25 scientific nature, 26 social progress and, 12–13 in telecommunications, 62–67 trading of, 15, 18 Technology flows/transfer

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives from academia, 34–35 Australian contributions to, 127–129 barriers to, 4, 5, 13, 14, 16, 27, 33, 126; see also Protectionism between NATO and Warsaw Pact countries, 18 dynamics, 109 fixed-factor, 130 internal, 24, 155–156 from industry, 35, 109 Japanese and U.S. strategies compared, 133–135 in Latin America and Caribbean, 155–156 negotiated military reductions and, 18 obstacles, 155–156 into Pacific rim countries, 9, 109–110, 122–125, 126 predicted trends, 4 private-sector forces in, 14–15 through production sharing, 97, 103 rates, 4, 10, 33–34, 164 strategies for encouraging, 24, 103, 155–156 See also International technological cooperation Telecommunications advances in, 7 bit rates, 53 coaxial cable transmission technology, 52 in construction industry, 71 contribution to international technological cooperation, 32 convergence of service modes, 7, 62–63 digitalization, 62, 63 electronic equipment production globally, 46 electronic mail, 32 electro-optical directional coupler, 52 fiber optics applications, 32, 63 globalization, 62 information integrity, 7, 67 inter-LAN/PBX, 53 microelectronics revolution, 7, 63 objectives, 67 optical fiber applications, 27, 51–53, 62 privacy protection, 7, 67 problems and challenges, 7 regulation of, 63 reliability, 7, 62, 66 satellite, 32, 62 security, 7, 62, 66 semiconductor component consumption, 46 social impacts of advances, 13 software applications and needs, 7, 50, 62, 63–64 standardization in, 7, 34, 55, 63, 65–66 structural changes in industry, 7, 64–65 switching technology, 50, 55, 57, 62 technologies contributing to advances in, 62, 63 See also Data processing and communications; Networks/ networking Telephony access to, globally, 55–56, 59 advances, 55–59 bit rates, 53 fiber optic networks, 51–52 growth forecasts, 57 job losses in, 64 local telephone exchange market, 56 main lines in service globally, 56–57 mobile cellular, 7, 54, 57–59 normal voice, 7, 53–57 standards, 58 switching technology, 50, 55, 57 technological advances contributing to, 57 See also Data processing and communications Television cable, 53, 63 high-definition, 52, 53 Thailand added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116 GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143 Trade and trade policy agriculture, by Pacific Economic Community, 116 ASEAN, 120–121 Australia, 131 barriers, 103 competitiveness and, 86, 116–118 for developed countries, 101–103 free-trade benefits, 14 GATT, 93, 100 incentives, 86, 101

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Japan, 115, 121, 136–137 Mexico, 93, 94, 165 protectionist-nationalist approach to, 14, 102 R&D and comparative advantage in, 146–147 technological impacts on, 1, 27 technology marketing, 15 U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 88–89, 103 volume, 27 See also Maquiladoras; Production sharing; Tariffs Transportation effects of technological advances on, 1, 13 electronic equipment production globally, 46 semiconductor component consumption, 46 See also Automotive industry U United Kingdom cellular phone penetration, 58–59 construction importance in, 69 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 economic growth rate, 160 industry cooperation in R&D, 33 military R&D expenditures, 146 United Nations Development Program, 154 United States agriculture, 116 application of new technologies, 10–11, 29 budget deficit, 5, 17, 28, 170–171, 173 cellular telephone use, 59 competition with Japan, 133–137 competitiveness/comparative advantage, 10, 93–94, 117–119, 165, 169–175, 177 contribution to world gross domestic product, 145 cultural barriers to cooperative efforts, 33 debt servicing, 170–171 deindustrialization, 28 economic growth obstacles, 5, 9–10, 28 economic growth strategies, 10, 159–175 electronic equipment production by industry, 46 employment, civilian, 172 exporters and R&D spenders, leading, 166 financial assets trading, 165 GNP and growth rate, 68, 110–114, 142, 143, 159–160, 161, 165 graduate programs, foreign nationals in, 34 income per capita, 160 industry cooperation in R&D, 33 information technologies, economic and social impacts, 19–20 investment and technology transfer strategies, 133–135 manufacturing industry, 85, 90–91, 116, 165–166, 168, 171–172 military R&D, 146 nuclear first-strike potential and capabilities, 16–17 production sharing with Mexico, 8, 87–103 productivity, 160–161, 166 protectionism, 126, 174, 175 R&D support in, 6, 35, 145–146 regulation and industrial growth, 162, 174–175 savings rates, 169 South Korean investments by, 123 tariff provisions 806/807, 88–90, 103 technology transfer to South Korea, 122–123 , 125 telecommunications networks in, 19–20 trade deficit, 5, 28, 173 trade policies, 103, 121, 126, 173–174 wage rates, 93, 104, 165 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, construction research, 73 U.S. National Bureau of Standards, construction research, 73 V Very-large-scale-integration technology challenges, 46–48 computer-aided design applications in, 46 computer applications of, 48, 59 contributions to information technologies, 45–48 feature size, design complexity, and facilities for production, 46

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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives pace of development, 45–46 quality control, 66 See also Microcircuits; Semiconductors W Warsaw Pact countries, technology trading with NATO countries, 18 Word processing, labor market changes due to, 24, 64 X Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, 37