economic importance, 82–83

employee training, 84

flexible manufacturing systems, 83, 84

Japanese, 83

management role, 84

materials consumption, 82–83

production organization, 83–84

robotics, 83, 84

technological advances in, 8, 81, 83

U.S., 82–83

B

Board of the Cartagena Agreement, 154

Brazil

competitiveness, 177

economic weight, 142, 144

productivity, 165

C

Canada

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

GNP and growth rate, 111–112, 143

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

Capital investment, displacement by financial speculation, 27

Caribbean countries

competitiveness, 149–151

domestic demand, production, and technology, 151–153

economic growth obstacles and strategies, 152–153

economic weight of, 142–145

industrialization policy, 148–149

integration of science and technology, 156–157

interdependence with developed countries, 148

participation in world economy, 147–151

technology development strategies, 9, 153–155

technology transfer, 155–156

trade asymmetry, 148

unemployment, 152

wage rates, 152

China, see People’s Republic of China

Communications, see Data processing and communications;

Telecommunications;

Telephony

Competitiveness, see International competitiveness/comparative advantage

Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM)

in automotive industry, 81

in construction, 7, 69–71, 78

expert systems applications, 70–71, 78

initial graphics exchange specification, 70

in manufacturing, 8, 81, 82

robotics, 74–75

standardization, 70

three-dimensional, 70–71

in very-large-scale-integration technology, 46–47

Computers and computer systems

costs, 38, 59, 60

digitalization, 62, 63

employment and, 13, 24

expert systems, 4, 70–71, 73–75, 78

fifth-generation, 33

human interface, 37–38, 40, 49, 50

influences on information technologies, 48–49

integrated software-hardware, 24, 37, 49

manufacturing industry applications, 8, 82

memory and processing power, 37, 38, 48–51

parallel processing architectures, 49–51

personal computers, 37, 38, 59, 60

productivity and, 13

quality control applications, 76

reduced-instruction-set, 49, 51

security for, 66

standards, 20, 40

use by white-collar workers, 59, 60

VLSI applications in, 48, 49, 59

See also Artificial intelligence;

Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM);

Software;

Supercomputers

Construction

advanced materials in, 1, 71–72

automation, 7, 73–75, 78–79

computer applications, 7, 69–71, 73–76, 78–79

economic importance, 68–69



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