TABLE 1 Production of Electronic Equipment in 1985 (billions of U.S. dollars)

Industry

United States

Western Europe

Japan

Rest of World

Total

Data processing

80.4

21.2

17.3

9.9

128.8

Communications

28.6

17.7

7.5

4.6

58.4

Industrial

34.9

17.8

9.5

4.3

66.5

Consumer

16.2

10.1

36.1

12.4

74.8

Military

49.2

11.0

1.0

61.2

Transportation

8.5

2.0

2.8

3.0

16.3

Total

217.8

79.8

73.2

35.2

406.0

Rolls Royces could be put on the head of a pin and that each of them would cost about $3.00, give over 3,000 miles to a gallon of gas, and have enough power to drive the Queen Elizabeth II.

In very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) technology at the cutting edge of development, there are challenges in feature size, design complexity, and facilities for production. VLSI technology today includes feature sizes of less than 1 μm on the chip. On a biological scale, this is in the range of red blood cells and yeast cells to the smallest bacteria. However, feature dimensions as small as the human immunodeficiency (HIV or AIDS) virus, which is about 1,000 Å, have still not been reached (see Figure 1). The smaller the feature size, the faster the processing capacity and design complexity of the chip. Thus, the feature size is critical for the price-performance development in microelectronics.

The equivalent of hundreds of worker-years is now put into the design of a complex chip roughly 40–100 mm2 in size. This implies making full use of advanced computer-aided design technology, including cell libraries and macrocells—that is, tools by which defined and tested blocks, such as a

TABLE 2 Consumption of Semiconductor Components in 1985 (billions of U.S. dollars)

Industry

United States

Western Europe

Japan

Rest of World

Total

Data processing

3.7

0.9

2.6

0.4

7.6

Communications

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.2

3.6

Industrial

1.5

1.1

0.8

0.2

3.6

Consumer

0.7

1.0

4.0

0.8

6.5

Military

1.5

0.4

0.0

1.9

Transportation

0.8

0.3

0.3

0.1

1.5

Total

9.6

4.9

8.5

1.7

24.7



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