TABLE 3 Key Achievements in Information Technologies (with inventors noted as appropriate)

Date

Invention

Inventor

1455

Gutenberg press

Johannes Gutenberg

1844

Telegraph

Samuel F.B.Morse

1876

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

1889

Strowger selector

 

1901

Transatlantic wireless telegraphy

Guglielmo Marconi

1906

Triode vacuum tube

Lee De Forest

1910

Teletraffic theory

Agner K.Erlang

1923

Telephotography, the iconoscope

Vladimir K.Zworykin

1927

Feedback amplifier

Harold S.Black

1930

Telex, the coaxial cable

 

1937

Pulse code modulation

Alec H.Reeves

1937

Xerography

Chester F.Carlson

1946

ENIAC computer

John W.Mauchly and J.Prosper Eckert

1947

Transistor

John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley

1958

Integrated circuit

 

1962

Telstar satellite

 

1965

Stored program control switch

 

1966

Step index optical fiber conception

K.C.Kao

1970

Optical fiber lab test

Robert D.Maurer

1971

Microprocessor

 

1976

Fiber optical transmission

 

1990s

Possible software breakthrough with declarative languages

 

processor unit or a memory function, can be used to build more complex designs. As chips become more complex, the trend is toward larger chips—even three-dimensional circuits—and optimization of the feature interconnect.

More limiting than feature size is the interconnect, and any drastic development in chip complexity will depend on a solution to this problem. Since the transistor or gate functions can be produced in small feature sizes, less than 1 μm, the interconnects between these features need to be of an equivalent size. However, high packaging densities and sizes that are too small will introduce such problems as increased resistance and decreased speed in the functions of the chip.

The frontier products of the late 1980s will be the 4- and 16-megabit (Mbit) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, with the latter being only in the prototype stage over the next few years. In the next 8 to 10 years, however, DRAMs larger than 100 Mbits will be available on the market.

Producing these complex chips requires production facilities with a su-



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