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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives GLOBALIZATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES Proceedings of the Sixth Convocation of The Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences Janet H.Muroyama and H.Guyford Stever, Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 As host of the Sixth Convocation of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, through the National Academy Press, was responsible for publication of the proceedings volume. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Robert M.White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. This publication has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee. The interpretations and conclusions in this publication are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of either the National Academy of Engineering or the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences. The Sixth Convocation was supported by the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences. Funds for the convocation and the publication of the proceedings volume were provided by the National Academy of Engineering’s Technology Agenda Program. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences. Convocation (6th : 1987: Washington, D.C.) Globalization of technology : international perspectives : proceedings of the Sixth Convocation of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences/Janet H.Muroyama and H.Guyford Stever, editors. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03843-x. ISBN 0-309-03842-1 (pbk.) 1. Technology—Congresses. I. Muroyama, Janet H. II. Stever, H. Guyford, III. Title. T6.C55 1987 600—dc19 88–12090 CIP Copyright © 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States government. Printed in the United States of America
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Preface and Acknowledgments TECHNOLOGY’S HIGHEST PURPOSE lies in helping to bring about a better world, that is, in creating systems that are a benefit to society. Historically, technology has enabled nations to expand the economic pie so that the standard of living for all is increased. The globalization of the world economy makes it imperative that this aspiration be achieved through increased international cooperation, marking a permanent transformation in the engineering endeavor. This change is already evident in many areas. No longer does a small group of nations have a monopoly on technological superiority, for centers of excellence in electronics, materials, propulsion, manufacturing, and biotechnology exist in many countries. Increased cross-national investment has enabled engineers from one country to work for firms from other countries. Vast communication networks among interdependent firms and research centers facilitate the flow of information about technological developments, creating an impact far beyond the borders of the country in which the discovery originated. New cooperative arrangements such as joint ventures, purchases of licenses and patents, research consortia, and branch laboratories have been established to promote technical exchange. Standards, certification, and product design are being harmonized as the products of engineering become increasingly global in reach and application. The Sixth Convocation of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences, held March 30 through April 1, 1987, presented a unique opportunity for engineers and technologists from around the world to gather and exchange ideas on the interaction between technological advance and the global economy. In addition to facilitating provocative discussion, the event was noteworthy because the Council is a singular
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives nongovernmental, multilateral mechanism for bringing the leaders of the world’s engineering community together. This book contains the papers presented at that convocation. It is my hope that the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences will gain wider recognition for its activities on behalf of international engineering exchange. By providing forums for discussion of technological issues and by acting as a stimulus for the formation of national engineering academies, the Council plays an important role in a world where technological cooperation has become a necessity. On behalf of the National Academy of Engineering, which hosted the Sixth Convocation, I would like to thank the officers of the council member academies who helped to design the convocation; H.Guyford Stever, who chaired the meeting; and Simon Ramo, our keynote speaker. I would like to extend special thanks to the session chairmen—Alf Akerman, Marco A.Murray-Lasso, Morris Tanenbaum, Sir Francis Tombs, and Sir David Zeidler—and the speakers (listed on page 191) who contributed so much to the substance of the proceedings. Steven Anastasion, Janet Muroyama, and Benta Sims deserve special mention for their efforts in organizing the convocation. For their work in preparing the manuscript for publication, I would like to thank Janet Muroyama, Jesse Ausubel, Dale Langford, Annette McNeil, Caroline Anderson, and Barbara Becker. ROBERT M.WHITE President National Academy of Engineering
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Contents Overview H.Guyford Stever and Janet H.Muroyama 1 Globalization of Industry and Implications for the Future Simon Ramo 12 The Technology Revolution and the Restructuring of the Global Economy Umberto Colombo 23 Global Flows and Barriers Trends in International Technological Cooperation Gerald P.Dinneen 32 Technological Cooperation in Europe Harry L.Beckers 34 Driving Technologies Advances in Software George E.Pake 37 Advances in Materials Science Pierre R.Aigrain 41 Information Technologies in Industry and Society Lars Ramqvist 45
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Technological Advances and Challenges in the Telecommunications Sector Hiroshi Inose 62 Technological Advances in the Construction Sector Alden P.Yates 68 Fifteen Years of Major Structural Changes in Manufacturing Pehr Gyllenhammar 80 Globalization of Industry Through Production Sharing Emilio Carrillo Gamboa 86 Regional and National Consequences of Globalizing Industries of the Pacific Rim Jan E.Kolm 106 Technology and the World Economy: The Case of the American Hemisphere Enrique Martin del Campo 141 Strategies for U.S. Economic Growth Ralph Landau and Nathan Rosenberg 159 Improving the Quality of Life Through Technology Hajime Karatsu 177 Appendixes A. The Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences 183 B. Sixth Convocation Council Member Academies and Officers 185 C. The Sixth Convocation Program: Technology and the Global Economy 187 D. List of Participants 191 E. Contributors 197 Index 203
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives GLOBALIZATION OF TECHNOLOGY
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