Waterborne Pathogen

Health Effects

Mode of Transmission

References and URLs

Protozoa

Acanthamoeba

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (swelling of the brain characterized by granulation tissue) in immunosuppressed people; keratitis (severe and potentially blinding infection of the cornea)

Contamination of contact lens or storage case

http://www.awwarf.com/newprojects/pathegeons/ACANTHAM.html; EPA, 1998

Cryptosporidium parvum

Subclinical infections and self-limiting diarrhea in healthy adults; severe diarrhea in infants and immunocompromised persons

Drinking water

Szewzyk et al., 2000; Theron and Cloete, 2002

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Diarrhea, abdominal cramping, decreased appetite, and low-grade fever that can last for several weeks

Unknown; fecal-oral route either directly or via water is thought to be highly probable

LeChevallier et al., 1999

Giardia lamblia

Subclinical infections and self-limiting diarrhea in healthy adults; severe diarrhea in infants and immunocompromised persons

Drinking water

Szewzyk et al., 2000; Theron and Cloete, 2002

Microsporidia

Diarrhea and cholangiopathy (infection of bile ducts) in immunocompromised persons

Surface water; sewage-contaminated waters

EPA, 1998; LeChevallier et al., 1999; Szewzyk et al., 2000

Toxoplasma gondii

Flu-like illness and/or swollen glands in the neck, armpits, or groin

Water contaminated by cats

LeChevallier et al., 1999

Other

Cyanobacteria toxins

Poisoning; gastrointestinal disease

Nutrient-rich surface water

EPA, 1998; LeChevallier et al., 1999; Szewzyk et al., 2000



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