For example, in light of the public health importance of viral pathogens in ground and coastal waters (as described in this report), several of the reports suggest that viral indicators, such as coliphage, be implemented. Other reports recommend development and use of molecular strategies so that new or (re)emerging pathogens can be detected in water. However, all reports included in Table B-1 agree that, given the documented public health impacts of waterborne disease, new and improved indicators of the presence of waterborne pathogens are needed.

REFERENCES

ASM (American Society for Microbiology). 1999. Microbial Pollutants in Our Nation’s Water—Environmental and Public Health Issues. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press.

AWWARF (American Water Works Association Research Foundation). 2000a. An Epidemiological Study of Gastrointestinal Health Effects of Drinking Water. Denver, Colorado: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.

AWWARF. 2000b. Development of a Decision Process for Prioritization of Emerging Pathogens Research. Denver, Colorado: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.

AWWARF. 2001. Design of Early Warning and Predictive Source-Water Monitoring Systems. Denver, Colorado: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.


EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Improved Indicator Methods of Pathogen Occurrence in Water. Workshop Summary: August 10-11, 1998. Arlington, Virginia: Office of Water.

EPA. 1999a. EPA Action Plan for Beaches and Recreational Waters. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development and Office of Water. EPA-600-R-98-079.

EPA. 1999b. Review of Potential Modeling Tools and Approaches to Support the BEACH Program. Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology. EPA-823-R-99-002.

EPA. 2001a. Developing Strategy for Waterborne Microbial Disease. Presentation at Waterborne Microbial Disease Stakeholder Meeting. November 6, 2001. Washington, D.C.

EPA. 2001b. Protocol for Developing Pathogen TMDLs: First Edition. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. EPA-841-R-00-002.

EPA Workshop Group. 2001. Proceedings of Workshop on Development of Microbiological Criteria for Drinking Water Sources, Recreational Waters, and Shellfish Growing Waters, August 27-29. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.


ILSI (International Life Sciences Institute) Risk Science Institute. 1999. Early Warning Monitoring to Detect Hazardous Events in Water Supplies. T.K. Brosnan, ed. Washington, D.C.: International Life Sciences Institute.


NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1998. Issues in Potable Reuse. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999a. Setting Priorities for Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999b. Identifying Future Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000a. From Monsoons to Microbes. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000b Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply: Assessing the New York City Strategy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001. Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.



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