Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 80
A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007–2008 References ACIA (Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment) Secretariat. 2004. Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Albert, M. 2004. The International Polar Year. Science 303:1437. Alley, R. B. 2000. The Two-Mile Time Machine. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 240 pp. Alley, R. B. D. A. Meese, C. A. Shuman, A. J. Gow, K. C. Taylor, P. M. Grootes, J. W. C. White, M. Ram, E. D. Waddington, P. A. Mayewski, and G. A. Zielinski. 1993. Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature 362:527-529. AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme). 2002. Arctic Pollution 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants, Heavy Metals, Radioactivity, Human Health, Changing Pathways. Oslo, Norway. AMAP. xii+112 pp. Anandakrishnan, S., D. D. Blankenship, R. B. Alley, and P. L. Stoffa. 1998. Influence of subglacial geology on the position of a West Antarctic ice stream from seismic observations. Nature 394:62-65. Arendt, A. A., K. A. Echelmeyer, W. D. Harrison, C. S. Lingle and V. B. Valentine. 2002. Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level. Science 297:382-386. Baker, D. N., C. Barton, A. Rodger, B. Fraser, B. Thompson, and V. Papitashvili. 2004. Moving beyond the IGY: The electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) Concept. EOS (in press). Barrett, P. 2003. Cooling a continent. Nature 421:221-223. Barrie, L. A. 1986. Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge. Atmospheric Environment 20:643-663. Becker, L. B., M. L. Weisfeldt, M. H. Weil, T. Budinger, J. Carvico, K. Kern, G. Nichol, I. Shechter, R. Traystman, C. Webb, H. Wiedemann, R. Wise, G. Sopko. 2002. The PULSE initiative: Scientific priorities and strategic planning for resuscitation research and life saving therapies. Circulation 105:2562-2570. Bell, R. E., D. D. Blankenship, C. A. Finn, D. L. Morse, T. A. Scambos, J. M. Brozena, and S. M. Hodge. 1998. Influence of sub-glacial geology on the onset of a West Antarctic ice stream from aerogeophysical observations. Nature 394:58-62. Blankenship, D. D., R. E. Bell, S. M. Hodge, J. M. Brozena, J. C. Behrendt, and C. A. Finn. 1993. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability. Nature 361:526-529. Bottenheim, J. W., A. G. Gallant, and K. A. Brice. 1986. Measurements of NOy species and O3 at 82° N latitude. Geophysical Research Letters 13:113–116. Boyer, B. B. and B. M. Barnes. 1999. Molecular and metabolic aspects of mammalian hibernation. Bioscience 49:713-724. Brodeur, R. D., H. Sugisaki, and G. L. Hunt, Jr. 2002. Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea: implications for the ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 233:89-103. Cavalieri, D. J., P Gloerson, C.L. Parkinson, J.C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 278:1104-1106.
OCR for page 81
A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007–2008 Comiso, J. C., J. Yang, S. Honjo, and R. A. Krishfield. 2003. Detection of change in the Arctic using satellite and in situ data. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C12):3384. Crowley, T. J., and G. R. North. 1996. Paleoclimatology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cuffey, K. M., and G. D. Clow. 1997. Temperature, accumulation, and ice sheet elevation in central Greenland through the last deglacial transition. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(26):383-396. DeConto, R., and D. Pollard. 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421:245-249. DiTullio, G. R. and R. B. Dunbar. 2003. Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea-An Introduction. In Biogeo-chemical Cycles in the Ross Sea, G. R. Ditullio, and R. B. Dunbar, eds. Antarctic Research Series 87:1-3. DiTullio, G. R., J. Grebmeier, K. R. Arrigo, M. P. Lizotte, D. H. Robinson, A. Leventer, J. Barry, M. VanWoert, and R. B. Dunbar. 2000. Rapid and early export of Phaeocystis Antarctica blooms in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Nature 404:595-598. Dominé, F. and P. B. Shepson. 2002. Air-snow interactions and their impact on atmospheric chemistry. Science 297:1506-1510. Doran, P. T., C. H. Fritsen, C. P. McKay, J. C. Priscu, and E. E. Adams. 2003. Formation and character of an ancient 19m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an “ice-sealed” east Antarctic lake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:26-31. Eastman, J.T., ed. 1993. Antarctic Fish Biology: Evolution in a Unique Environment. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, J. C. Stroeve, M. C. Serreze, J. Maslanik, C. Oelke, and T. A. Scambos. 2004. Recent Arctic Ice Extent Minima Observed with the Sea Ice Index. Submitted to EOS. Gradinger, R. 1995. Climate change and biological oceanography of the Arctic Ocean. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 352:277-286. Grebmeier, J. M., and K. H. Dunton. 2000. Benthic Processes in the Northern Bering/Chukchi Seas: Status and Global Change. In Impacts of Changes in Sea Ice and Other Environmental Parameters in the Arctic, H.P. Huntington, ed. Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, Girdwood, Alaska, 15-17 February 2000, pp. 80-93. Gregory, J. M., P. S. Stott, D.J. Cresswell, N.A. Rayner, and C. Gordon. 2002. Recent and future changes in Arctic sea ice simulated by the HadCM3 AOGCM. Geophysical Research Letters 29(24):2175. Grootes, P. M., and M. Stuiver. 1997. Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10–3- to 105-year time resolution. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(26):455-470. Holland, G. J., P. J. Webster, J. A. Curry, G. Tyrell, D. Gauntlett, G. Brett, J. Becker, R. Hoag, and W. Vaglienti. 2001. The Aerosonde robotic aircraft: A new paradigm for environmental observations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82:(5)889-901. Hunt, Jr., G. L. and P. J. Stabeno. 2002. Climate change and control of energy flow in the southeastern Bering Sea. Progress in Oceanography 55:5-22. Hunt, G. L., Jr., P. Stabeno, G. Walters, E. Sinclair, R. D. Brodeur, J. M. Napp, and N. A. Bond. 2002. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep Sea Research Part II. 49:5821-5853. INSROP (International Northern Sea Route Programme). 1999. Environmental Conditions Affecting Commercial Shipping on the Northern Sea Route. INSROP Working Paper #126. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1998. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Johannessen, O. M, L. Bengtsson, M. W. Miles, S. I. Kuzima, V. A. Semenov, G. V. Alekseev, A. P. Nagurnyi, V. F. Zakharov, L. P. Bobylev, L. H. Pettersson, K. Hasselmann, and H. P. Cattle. 2004. Arctic climate change—observed and modeled temperature and sea ice variability. Tellus (A), 56A:1-18. Johannessen, O. M., Muench, R. D., Overland, J. E., eds. 1994. The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment: The Nansen Centennial Volume. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. Jones, P.D. and A. Moberg. 2003. Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2001. Journal of Climate 16:206-223. Kaiser. J. 2003. Warmer Ocean Could Threaten Antarctic Ice Shelves. Science 302:759. Krajick, K. 2001. Arctic Life, On Thin Ice. Science 291:424-425. Krupnik, I., and D. Jolly, eds. 2001. The Earth is faster now: Indigenous observations of Arctic environmental change. Fairbanks, Alaska: Arctic Research Consortium of the United States.
OCR for page 82
A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007–2008 Lu, J. Y., W. H. Schroeder, L. A. Barrie, A. Steffen, H. E. Welch, K. Martin, L. Lockhart, R. V. Hunt, G. Boila, and A. Richter, 2001. Magnification of atmospheric mercury deposition to polar regions in springtime: the link to tropospheric ozone depletion chemistry. Geophysical Research Letters 28:3219-3222. Manabe, S. and R. J. Stouffer, 1994. Multiple-century response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Climate 7:5-23. McConnell, J. R., G.W. Lamorey, and M.A. Hutterli. 2002. A 250-year high-resolution record of Pb flux and crustal enrichment in central Greenland, Geophysical Research Letters 29:2130-2134. Moore, S. E., J. M. Grebmeier, and J. R. Davis. 2003. Gray whale distribution relative to forage habitat in the northern Bering Sea: current conditions and retrospective summary. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:734-742. Mueller D. R., W. F. Wincent and M. O. Jeffries. 2003. Break-up of the largest Arctic ice shelf and associated loss of an epishelf lake. Geophysical Research Letters 30(20):2031. doi:10.1029/ 2003GL017931. Norton, D. W., ed. 2001. Fifty More Years Below Zeros: Tributes and Mediations for the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory’s First Half Century at Barrow, Alaska. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press. NRC (National Research Council). 2001a. Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001b. Climate Change Science: Analysis of Some Key Questions. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002. Abrupt Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2003a. Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomic Era. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2003b. The Sun to the Earth and Beyond A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004a. Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites Interim Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004b. Exploration of the Seas: Voyage into the Unknown. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NSB (National Science Board). 1987. The Role of the National Science Foundation in Polar Regions. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. NSF (National Science Foundation). 1997. The United States in Antarctica: Report of the U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. Oltmans, S. J. 1981. Surface ozone measurements in clean air. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86:11,980. ONR (Office of Naval Research), Naval Ice Center, Oceanographer of the Navy, and the Arctic Research Commission. 2001. Naval Operations in an Ice Free Arctic Symposium Final Report. Suitland, Md.: Whitney, Bradley & Brown, Inc. Overpeck, J., K. Hughen, D. Hardy, R. Bradley, R. Case, M. Douglas, B. Finney, K. Gajewski, G. Jacoby, A. Jennings, S. Lamoureux, A. Lasca, G. MacDonald, J. Moore, M. Retelle, S. Smith, A. Wolfe, and G. Zielinski. 1997. Arctic Environmental Change of the Last Four Centuries. Science 278(5341):1251. Price, P. B. 2000. A habitat for psychrophiles in deep Antarctic ice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(3): 1247-1251. Priscu, J. C. 2002. Commentary: Subglacial Lakes have changed our view of Antarctica. Antarctic Science. 14:291. Priscu, J. C., E. E. Adams, H. W. Pearl, C. H. Fritsen, J. E. Dore, J. T. Lisle, C. F. Wolf, and J. A. Mikucki. 2002. Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice: A refuge for Cyanobacteria in an extreme environment. In Life in Ancient Ice, S. Rogers and J. Castello, eds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Press. Putkonen, J. K. and G. H. Roe. 2003. Rain-on-snow events impact soil temperatures and affect ungulate survival. Geophysical Research Letters 30(4):1188. Rahmstorf, S. 2003. Timing of abrupt climate change: A precise clock. Geophysical Research Letters 30:10.1029/2003GL017115. Rapley, C. and R. Bell. 2004. Report to the ICSU Executive Board from the International Polar Year Planning Group. Available at http://www.us-ipy.org/. Accessed May 13, 2004. Ritzwoller, M. H., N. M. Shapiro, A. L. Levshin, and G. M. Leahy. 2001. The structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath Antarctica and the surrounding oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(B12):30645-30670.
OCR for page 83
A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007–2008 Sarmiento, J. L., T. M. C. Hughes, R. J. Stouffer, and S. Manabe. 1998. Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature 393:245-249. Scambos, T. A., C. Hulbe, M. Fahnestock, J. Bohlander. 2000. The link between climate warming and break-up of ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Glaciology 46(154):516-30. Schell, D. M. 2000. Declining carrying capacity in the Bering Sea: Isotopic evidence from baleen. Limnology and Oceanography 45:459-462. SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) Science Steering Committee. 2001. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change, Science Plan. Seattle, Wash.: Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington. Serreze, M. C. J. A. Maslanik, T. A. Scambos, F. Fetterer, J. Stroeve, K. Knowles, C. Fowler, S. Drobot, R. G. Barry, and T. M. Haran. 2003. A record minimum arctic sea ice extent and area in 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 30:1110. Serreze, M. C., J. E. Walsh, F. S. Chapin, T. Osterkamp, M. Dyurgerov, V. Romanovsky, W. C. Oechel, J. Morison, T. Zhang, and R. G. Barry. 2000. Observational Evidence of Recent Change in the Northern High-Latitude Environment. Climatic Change 46(1-2):159-207. Severinghaus, J. P., and E. J. Brook. 1998. Abrupt climate change at the end of the last glacial period inferred from trapped air in polar ice. Science 286:930-934. Shapiro, N. M. and M. H. Ritzwoller. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151:88-105. Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, T. Payne, and P. Skvarca. 2003. Larsen Ice Shelf has progressively thinned. Science 302:856-859. Shepson, P., P. Matrai, L. Barrie, and J. Bottenheim. 2003. Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snowpack Interactions in the Arctic and Global Change. EOS Transactions 84:349. Siegert, M. J., J. C. Ellis-Evans, M. Tranter, C. Mayer, J. R. Petit, A. Salamatin, and J. C. Priscu. 2001. Physical, chemical and biological processes in Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes. Nature 414:603-609. Siple, P. 1931. A Boy Scout with Byrd. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Siple, P. 1959. 90 Degrees South. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Skvarca, P., W. Rack, H. Rott and T. Ibarzábal y Donángelo. 1999. Climatic trend and the retreat and disintegration of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula: an overview. Polar Research 18(2):151-157. Stone, R., and G. Vogel. 2004. A year to remember at the ends of the Earth. Science 303:1458-1461. Thompson, D. W. J. and S. Solomon. 2002. Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science 296:895-899. USGCRP (United States Global Change Research Program). 2001. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/default.htm. Accessed May 14, 2004. Whitfield, J. 2003. Too hot to handle. Nature 425:338-339. Zwiers, F. W., and H. von Storch, 2004: On the role of statistics in climate research. International Journal of Climatology, in press.
OCR for page 84
A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007–2008 This page intentionally left blank.
Representative terms from entire chapter: