TABLE 1-1 Trends in Food Availability and Dietary Intake of the U.S. Population and of U.S. Children and Youtha

Dietary Intake Trend

U.S.Population

U.S.Children and Youth

Portion sizes of foods

Portion sizes of most foods consumed by adults both at home and away from home (except pizza) increased between 1977 and 1996 (Nielsen and Popkin, 2003).

Portion sizes for children aged 2 years and older increased for most foods consumed both at home and away from home between 1977 and 1996 (Nielsen and Popkin, 2003).

Total energy intake derived from away-from-home sources

Total energy intake increased from 18% to 34% for adults between 1977-1978 and 1995 (Lin et al., 1999a).

Total energy intake increased from 20% to 32% for children between 1977-1978 and 1994-1996 (Lin et al., 1999b).

Total energy intake

Between 1971 and 2000, average energy intake increased from 2,450 to 2,618 calories for men and 1,542 to 1,877 kcal forwomen (CDC, 2004a).

Between 1989 and 1991 and 1994-1996, total energy increased 8.6% and 9.5%, according to food supply and CSFII data, respectively (Chanmugan et al., 2003).

Between 1983 and 2000, calories per capita increased by 20% (USDA, 2003) (Figure 1-1).

No significant increased trends inenergy intake were observed in children aged 6-11 years between 1977-1978 and 1994-1996, 1998 (Enns et al., 2002).

Total calories consumed by adolescent boys aged 12 to 19 years increased by 243 between 1977-1978 and 1994-1996 from 2,523 to 2,766 calories (Enns et al., 2003). Total calories consumed by adolescent girls aged 12 to 19 years increased by 123 between 1977-1978 and 1994-1996 from 1,787 to 1,910 calories (Enns et al., 2003).

Total fat consumption

Between 1971 and 2000, the percentage of calories from total fat decreased for men (from 36.9%to 32.8%) and women (from 36.1% to 32.8%) (CDC, 2004a). However, the intake of grams of total fat increased among women and decreased among men (CDC, 2004a) (Figure 1-2).

Between 1965 and 1996, the proportion of energy from total fat consumed by children decreased from 39% to 32%, and saturated fat from 15% to 12% (Cavadini et al., 2000).

Children aged 6 to 11 years in 1994-1996, 1998 consumed 25% of calories from discretionary fat (USDA, 2000; Enns et al., 2002).



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