Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 11, 194, 195, 196, 199, 234, 276, 278

Alcohol intake, 127, 301

Allan, Janet D., 43

Alleles, 326

American Cancer Society, 13, 42, 114, 139, 190, 192, 211, 232, 297

American College of Radiology (ACR), 44, 74, 89, 91, 103, 233

Imaging Network (ACRIN), 93, 98, 99, 196, 203, 235-237

Mammography Accreditation Program, 82, 83

and radiological associate, 110-111

Task Force on Human Resources, 107

American Heart Association, 206, 232

American Italian Cancer Foundation, 42

American Medical Association, 196, 233

American Society of Clinical Oncology, 42, 96, 233

American Society of Radiological Technologists (ASRT), 110, 111

AmeriScan™, 32

Analytical validity, 326

Anatomical technologies

electrical-property-based, 288-290

mammography and its improvements, 280-283

MRI-based, 293-294

optical-property-based, 292-293

physical-property-based, 284-287

Androgens, 135, 136

Angiogenesis, 159, 165, 172, 173, 287, 326

Annas, George, 215

Anti-angiogenesis drugs, 172

Antibodies, 167, 175, 177

Antigens, 177, 326

Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), 205, 206-207, 208-209, 210, 253

APC gene, 137

Apoptosis, 165, 173, 175, 177

AR gene, 136

Arkansas Department of Health, 82

Artificial intelligence systems, 169

Ashkenazi Jewish women, 129, 130, 131

Asian Americans, 45, 128, 133

Association of American Medical Colleges, 12, 218

AstraZeneca, 206

Ataxia telangiectasia, 133

ATM gene, 133

Atypical hyperplasia, 52, 126, 326

Augmented breasts, 96, 294

Austin, Melissa, 130

Australia, 5, 65

Avon Foundation, 99, 190, 192

Axillary node dissection, 67

B

Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999, 233

Basement membrane, 50, 52

Benign lesions, 52, 97, 98, 170, 294

Berlin, Leonard, 89

Berwick, Donald, 249, 261

Beta-galactosidase, 177

BI-RADS®, 44, 83, 84, 91

Bias, 99

in clinical trials, 326-327

confounding, 324, 329

defined, 323-324

follow-up losses, 203, 324

interpretation, 315

lead-time, 201, 333

length, 201, 333

sampling, 129, 201, 333

systematic or measurement errors, 163, 324

Bioinfomatics, 235, 239, 327

Biologically based technologies. See also Biomarkers and biomarker assays;

Molecular imaging;

Molecular profiling;

specific technologies

clinical applications, 155, 156-157, 181-182, 274

costs of, 166, 297

FDA approval, 161, 181

Bioluminate, Inc., 306

Bioluminescent probes, 175, 176, 178

Biomarkers and biomarker assays. See also Genetic markers;

individual biomarkers

accuracy, 156, 160, 161

clinical applications, 157, 158-159, 160-161

as decision aid, 160-161, 169

defined, 157, 327



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