8
Malaria Control

INTRODUCTION

This chapter reviews malaria control over the last century, tracking malaria’s retreat from much of the world to its current lines of demarcation. It also describes individual control methods targeting both the mosquito vector and the human reservoir of infection and the current status of diagnosis and vaccine development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of malaria control strategies, including national and regional policies and programs operating today.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

Historically, malaria’s reach extended far beyond the tropics. Until the 19th century, transmission occurred in much of the temperate world, including parts of England, Holland, Germany, central and southeastern Europe, Asia, India, China, and the Americas (Shiff, 2002). In North America, the disease reached as far north as New York, and even Montreal (Barber, 1929). In the early 20th century, the Tennessee Valley Authority brought hydroelectric power to the southeastern United States, modernizing the region. As housing and lifestyles improved, and the human reservoir of infection decreased, malaria retreated (Desowitz, 1999). Malaria also disappeared during the first half of the 20th century from most of Europe following changes in land use, agricultural practices, house construction, and targeted vector control (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002).



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance 8 Malaria Control INTRODUCTION This chapter reviews malaria control over the last century, tracking malaria’s retreat from much of the world to its current lines of demarcation. It also describes individual control methods targeting both the mosquito vector and the human reservoir of infection and the current status of diagnosis and vaccine development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of malaria control strategies, including national and regional policies and programs operating today. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Historically, malaria’s reach extended far beyond the tropics. Until the 19th century, transmission occurred in much of the temperate world, including parts of England, Holland, Germany, central and southeastern Europe, Asia, India, China, and the Americas (Shiff, 2002). In North America, the disease reached as far north as New York, and even Montreal (Barber, 1929). In the early 20th century, the Tennessee Valley Authority brought hydroelectric power to the southeastern United States, modernizing the region. As housing and lifestyles improved, and the human reservoir of infection decreased, malaria retreated (Desowitz, 1999). Malaria also disappeared during the first half of the 20th century from most of Europe following changes in land use, agricultural practices, house construction, and targeted vector control (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002).

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Then came the golden days of DDT, a highly effective insecticide first used as a delousing agent at the end of World War II. During the 1950s and 1960s, indoor residual spraying with DDT was the centerpiece of global malaria eradication efforts. DDT’s months-long ability to kill or deter adult female mosquitoes resting on treated walls after feeding led to further declines in malaria in India, Sri Lanka, the former Soviet Union, and other countries. By 1966, campaigns using DDT spraying, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and mass treatment had freed more than 500 million people (roughly one-third of the population previously living in malarious areas) from the threat of disease (Shiff, 2002). Unfortunately, eradication was not sustained due to high program costs, community resistance to repeated house spraying, and the emergence of resistance to DDT. By the late 1960s, the hope of eradicating malaria through vector control was finally abandoned (Guerin et al., 2002). In many countries, the pendulum then swung to overreliance on chloroquine, a widely available antimalarial drug. Sub-Saharan Africa was always a special case. With the exception of a few pilot programs, no sustained malaria control efforts were ever mounted there (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002). The biggest obstacle was the widespread distribution of Anopheles gambiae, a long-lived and aggressive malaria vector. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) (which measures the frequency with which a human is bitten by an infectious mosquito) rarely exceeds five per year in Asia or South America. In contrast, EIRs of over 1,000 have been recorded in several parts of sub-Saharan Africa (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002). Today, the global burden of malaria is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa where stable, endemic disease is linked to poverty and highly efficient vectors. The insecticide-treated bednet (ITN)—first shown in The Gambia to reduce overall childhood mortality by 60 percent when combined with malaria chemoprophylaxis (Alonso et al., 1991)—is the vector control tool with the greatest promise for Africa. At the Africa Summit on Roll Back Malaria in Abuja, Nigeria in 2000, leaders from 44 African countries set a target of 60 percent ITN coverage of pregnant women and infants in Africa by 2005, an ambitious goal requiring roughly 160 million ITNs at an estimated cost of US$1.12 billion (Nahlen et al., 2003). Sadly, the goal is still far from being met. At the same time, insecticide resistance (involving pyrethroids and DDT) is a growing problem in Africa, along with environmental change brought by agriculture and other types of development that foster mosquito breeding. International sponsors also have withdrawn support for DDT due to environmental concerns. With respect to malaria’s human reservoir, the overriding challenge facing Africa is the development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to cheap and effective treatments (chloroquine and sulfadoxine-

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance pyrimethamine [SP]), compounded by large and, in some cases, mobile infected populations. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MALARIA CONTROL Successful malaria control programs traditionally use multiple interventions. In 1952, Paul Russell (a noted Rockefeller Foundation malariologist, and former head of the Allied antimalaria campaign in Italy) listed five approaches to malaria eradication (Russell, 1952): Measures to prevent mosquitoes from feeding on humans (human-vector contact) Measures to prevent or reduce the breeding of mosquitoes Measures to destroy mosquito larvae Measures to kill or reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes Measures to eliminate malaria parasites from humans Since Russell’s era, an increasing emphasis on the control of human disease has produced three additional strategies (Beales and Gilles, 2002): Measures to prevent and reduce malaria mortality (especially in high-risk groups) Measures to reduce malaria morbidity Measures to reduce malaria transmission Today’s control efforts mainly rely upon the interruption of human-vector contact and treatment of infected persons. Personal protection via ITNs or curtains is generally preferred in settings where vectors feed indoors during nighttime sleeping hours. ITNs also kill malaria vectors and reduce the local intensity of transmission (the “mass effect”). Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT or a pyrethroid insecticide is another way to reduce bites by vectors whose feeding and resting habits render them susceptible, as long as the majority of houses in a targeted community are sprayed. IRS also is the preferred vector control method during malaria epidemics and in refugee camps since trained spray teams can rapidly cover likely areas of transmission. Case management—which encompasses prompt access to health care, an accurate diagnosis, and effective treatment—is the other cornerstone of malaria control. The current failure to control malaria with drugs often starts with a failure to deliver appropriate case management to many malaria sufferers, particularly at the periphery of health systems. Other control strategies outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 include early forecasting of malaria epidemics and the

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance development of epidemiological information systems; capacity-building in basic and applied research; and ongoing assessment of ecological, social, and economic determinants of disease within affected countries and regions (WHO, 1993). Effective field operations also require expertise and teamwork. Qualified personnel with the scientific knowledge, skills, and authority are perhaps the single most important resource needed for effective vector control (Roberts et al., 2000). The same need for knowledge applies to those rendering clinical care to malaria patients: from parents, village health care workers, drug sellers, and traditional healers to laboratory workers, nurses, doctors, and other health care professionals. INSECTICIDES AND INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE Insecticides in Public Health Immediately after World War II, DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides formed the mainstay of malaria control. DDT was initially developed as a public health insecticide prior to its widespread agricultural use and recognition as an environmental pollutant (Curtis and Lines, 2000). Of note, when used indoors in limited quantities, DDT’s entry into the global food chain is minimal (Attaran et al., 2000). (For a full summary of DDT’s role in public health, readers are referred to a recent review [Taverne, 1999]). Today, despite concerns over their environmental effects and possible inactivation by mosquito vectors, chemical insecticides remain key elements in malaria control. A WHO-coordinated research program is now in place to develop new candidate insecticides and test their activity and safety(WHO, 1996a). The specifications for pesticides used in public health are part of the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Classified by chemical characteristics, the most common insecticides currently used in public health practice are: Petroleum oils and their derivatives Active constituents of flowers of pyrethrum (pyrethrins) or newer synthetic compounds of this group (pyrethroids) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and dieldrin) Organophosphorous insecticides (e.g., malathion, and temephos) Carbamates (e.g., propoxur, and carbaryl) Insect growth regulators (e.g., diflubenzuron, methoprene, and pyriproxyfen)

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Pyrethrum, an extract of dried chrysanthemum flowers, is the oldest effective insecticide known. Both pyrethrum and its natural and synthetic relatives (pyrethrins and pyrethroids) are nerve poisons that rapidly permeate and kill adult insects with high margins of mammalian safety. They also demonstrate rapid knock down (i.e., immobilizing) and repellant effects. The chief drawback of the class is its relatively short-lived action, although newer synthetic compounds such as permethrin and deltamethrin are more stable than naturally occurring products. The residues of DDT, in contrast, remain active for up to a year following application to impervious surfaces such as plastered walls (on mud brick, DDT loses its insecticidal effect faster). DDT’s long-term repellant, and contact irritant effects probably contribute as much or more than its direct insecticidal action in controlling malaria transmission (Roberts et al., 2000). On a molecular level, all major classes of chemical insecticide exert their principal effects within the nerve tissue of targeted insects. DDT and pyrethroids cause persistent activation of sodium channels (Soderlund and Bloomquist, 1989), while pyrethroids also act on receptors that normally govern inhibitory neurotransmission, and organophosphates and carbamates target acetylcholinesterase. Insecticide Resistance Levels of resistance in insect populations reflect the amount and frequency of insecticide contact as well as inherent characteristics of the target species. Thus far, DDT resistance has not developed in long-lived disease vectors such as tsetse flies or triatomid bugs (definitive hosts of African sleeping sickness and Chagas’ disease, respectively). Mosquitoes, in contrast, have several characteristics suited to rapid development of resistance, including a short life cycle and abundant progeny. In 1946, only two species of malaria vector were resistant to DDT. However, by 1966 the emergence of resistance was clear: 15 species were resistant to DDT, and 36 species were resistant to dieldrin (WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides, 1970). By 1991, 55 anopheline vectors demonstrated resistance to one or more insecticides. Of these, 53 were resistant to DDT, 27 to organophosphates, 17 to carbamates, and 10 to pyrethroids (WHO, 1992a,b). A decade later, some form of pyrethroid resistance (either decreased mortality, or decreased excito-repellancy of mosquitoes by pyrethroid-impregnated ITNs) had been reported from countries in Asia, Africa, and South America (Takken, 2002). Three major groups of inactivating enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and monooxygenases) are responsible for metabolic resistance to DDT, pyrethroids, organophosphates, and carbamates in Anopheles mos-

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance quitoes. Knock-down resistance (kdr) is a separate resistance phenotype linked to a point mutation in sodium channels targeted by both pyrethroids and DDT. Although prevalent in A. gambiae in West Africa, kdr has not impaired ITN efficacy in the region (Sina and Aultman, 2001; Hemingway and Bates, 2003). In southern Africa, in contrast, the local vector A. funestus has acquired metabolic resistance to pyrethroids, rendering ITNs ineffective (Chandre et al., 1999; Brooke et al., 2001). A looming concern for the future is that A. gambiae in equatorial Africa will acquire the same metabolic resistance to pyrethroids seen in A. funestus in southern Africa. Currently, metabolic resistance to pyrethroids in A. gambiae is limited to focal areas of West Africa and Kenya (Ranson et al., 2002). In coming years, strategies to decrease insecticide resistance may include rotations, mosaics, and mixtures of agricultural and environmental insecticides guided by mathematical models (Tabashnik, 1989). Until now, little field-testing of models has been conducted; however, with new biochemical and molecular field tools, large-scale trials of resistance management are feasible. Treating ITNs with two insecticides with differing mechanisms of action is another approach that may be implemented in the near future. In West Africa, bi-treated nets pairing pyrethroids with carbosulfan (a carbamate insecticide), or chlorpyrifos-methyl (an organophosphate insecticide) are currently under evaluation (Muller et al., 2002). INSECTICIDE-TREATED BEDNETS AND INDOOR RESIDUAL SPRAYING History of ITNs More than two thousand years before Ronald Ross and Giovanni Battista Grassi showed that mosquitoes transmit malaria, human beings used nets to fend off night-biting insects. Mosquito nets appear in historical records from the Middle East to West Africa to Papua New Guinea (Lindsay and Gibson, 1988). The Greek writer Herodotus (484 - ?425 BC) described how Egyptians living in marshy lowlands protected themselves with fishing nets. Every man there has a net which he uses in the daytime for fishing, but at night he finds another use for it: he drapes it over the bed … and then crawls in under and goes to sleep. Mosquitoes can bite through any cover or linen blanket … but they do not even try to bite through the net. Herodotus, The Histories

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance By the early 19th century, British colonists in India—most likely inspired by the example of Punjabi fishermen—also were sleeping under nets. However, it was not until World War II that textiles and insecticides were combined. In central Asia, the Soviet army applied juniper oil to bednets to repel mosquitoes, and sand flies bearing malaria and leishmaniasis (Blagoveschensky et al., 1945), while the American military in the Pacific theater impregnated bednets and jungle hammocks with 5 percent DDT to ward off malaria and filariasis (Harper et al., 1947). Interest in insecticide-impregnated nets as a malaria control tool resurfaced in the late 1970s and early 1980s. By then, synthetic pyrethroids were the logical insecticide choice because of their low mammalian toxicity and known efficacy in killing and repelling a variety of nuisance and disease-bearing insects. Several governments including the Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu began to include ITN promotion as one of their malaria control objectives (Chavasse et al., 1999). However the most successful government-financed ITN programs today are found in China and Vietnam, where the public sector’s chief contribution is to offer regular net re-treatment services. When re-treatment is provided free of charge (e.g., China and Vietnam), coverage is generally high (Curtis et al., 1992). Conversely, in Africa, where many nets and insecticides have been provided free or at subsidized prices through local projects and NGOs, less than 5 to 20 percent of nets are re-treated (Snow et al., 1999; Rowley et al., 1999; Guillet et al., 2001). Individual and Community Effects of ITNs Child Mortality After a number of small-scale studies in the 1980s showed favorable effects, the first large-scale study of ITNs plus chemoprophylaxis reported a 60 percent reduction of all-cause child mortality (Alonso et al., 1991). These results prompted the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to sponsor four randomized controlled trials in Africa to assess the effect of ITNs on all-cause mortality in African children in different epidemiologic settings. A cluster randomization design was used in all four trials. In The Gambia (D’Alessandro et al., 1995), a 25 percent reduction in all-cause mortality was seen in children less than 9 years old. In Kenya (Nevill et al., 1996) and Ghana (Binka et al., 1996), the introduction of ITNs was associated with 33 and 17 percent reductions in all-cause child mortality, respectively, in children under 5 years of age. Study populations in all three sites ranged from 60,000 to 120,000 (Table 8-1). The fourth randomized controlled trial in Burkina Faso (Habluetzel et

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance TABLE 8-1 Protective Efficacy of ITNs: Reductions in Child Mortality in Five Randomized Controlled Trials Country in Which Study Was Performed Percent Reduction in Child Mortality EIR The Gambia (D’Alessandro et al., 1995)a 25% 1-10 Kenya (Nevill et al., 1996) 33% 10-30 Ghana (Binka et al., 1996) 17% 100-300 Burkina Faso (Habluetzel et al., 1997) 15% 300-500 Kenya (Phillips-Howard et al., 2003) 16% 200-300 aThis study was considered an effectiveness, as opposed to an efficacy, study. al., 1997) examined insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) rather than bednets in roughly 100,000 residents of a region with alternating high and low malaria seasons. Baseline mortality, approaching 45 per thousand, was the highest to date among the four African ITN trials (Diallo et al., 1999). After 2 years of tracking, the use of ITCs was associated with a 15 percent decrease in all-cause mortality in Burkina Faso, concentrated in the first year of use. Viewed as a group, the four TDR-sponsored randomized controlled trials demonstrate decreasing ITN efficacy with increasing transmission pressure, since sites experiencing higher EIRs (100-500 infective bites per person per year, i.e., Ghana, and Burkina Faso) witnessed lower ITN benefits. The most recent group-randomized controlled trial of permethrin-treated bednets conducted in western Kenya (Hawley et al., 2003a) was designed to assess ITN efficacy at an upper range of year-round transmission. This study yielded an overall protective efficacy of 16 percent in all-cause child mortality; thus, ITN benefits were validated in an area of very high transmission. Maximum effect was dependent on regular re-treatment of ITNs, however. For example, the protective efficacy of ITNs in children aged 1-11 months fell from 26 to 17 percent when re-treatment was delayed beyond 6 months. The Kenyan trials also demonstrated roughly 90 percent transmission reduction from a baseline EIR of 60-300 (Gimnig et al., 2003b). When ITNs are combined with highly effective therapy such as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)—even in highly endemic areas—it is possible that the EIR could decline even further, approaching 0 (Personal communication, N. White, Mahidol University, February, 2004).

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Child and Maternal Morbidity Acute and chronic consequences of childhood malaria include uncomplicated febrile episodes with parasitemia, and anemia. Data from a large meta-analysis suggest that ITN use under stable transmission conditions roughly halves mild malaria episodes in children under five (Lengeler, 2001). In a nonrandomized trial of ITNs in southwestern Tanzania, treated nets conferred protective efficacy of 62 and 63 percent, respectively, on parasitemia and anemia in children under 5 (Abdulla et al., 2001). In an area of high perennial transmission in western Kenya, ITNs delayed the time to first infection in infants from 4.5 to 10.7 months (ter Kuile et al., 2003a). Repeated malaria infection also causes anemia and morbidity in pregnant women and newborns. Four randomized controlled trials of ITNs in pregnancy have shown variable benefits in different transmission settings. In Thailand and The Gambia (areas with lower, seasonal transmission), ITNs significantly reduced malaria parasitemia and maternal anemia (Dolan et al., 1993; D’Alessandro et al., 1996); in The Gambia, they also increased birth weight (D’Alessandro et al., 1996). However, similar benefits were not seen in areas with more intense transmission (coastal Kenya and Ghana) (Shulman et al., 1998; Browne et al., 2001), raising concern that ITNs might not protect pregnant women in areas with a very high EIR. This concern was allayed by the most recent findings. In the western Kenya trial, complete data were available in nearly 3,000 pregnancies (ter Kuile et al., 2003b). Before the study began, up to one-third of all infants were born preterm, small for gestational age, or with low birth weight. ITN-using pregnant women (gravidae 1-4) experienced a 38 percent reduction in maternal parasitemia, a 47 percent reduction in malarial anemia, and a 35 percent reduction in placental malaria at the time of delivery, while their newborns demonstrated a 28 percent reduction in low birth weight. Community and Population Effects In addition to conferring benefits upon individual users, ITNs can protect nonusers within ITN households as well as nonusers in nearby houses. Such effects were first noted in early village-scale ITN trials in Burkina Faso (Robert and Carnevale, 1991), Tanzania (Magesa et al., 1991), Kenya (Beach et al., 1993), and Zaire (Karch et al., 1993). More recent ITN studies have confirmed community-wide reductions in vector populations (Hii et al., 1997; Binka et al., 1998; Hii et al., 2000; Howard et al., 2000; Maxwell et al., 2002). Some ITN trial data have even demonstrated spatial effects on health. In Ghana, child mortality increased by 6.7 percent for every 100 m away from an intervention compound (Binka et al., 1998),

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance while in western Kenya, mortality, parasitemia, and anemia decreased in unprotected children living within 300 m of households from ITN villages (Gimnig et al., 2003a). The minimum ITN coverage needed to achieve community benefits is 50 to 60 percent of households within a neighborhood with suitable indoor, night-biting vectors (Hawley et al., 2003b). In Asia, in contrast, ITNs have had mixed results because vectors often bite outdoors in the late evening (or sometimes in the early morning), and both children and adults are susceptible. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets At present a single insecticide treatment of a conventional cotton or nylon mosquito net lasts for 6 to 12 months. “Long-lasting insecticidal nets” (with insecticide incorporated directly in net fibers) would eliminate the need for regular re-treatment. Two prototypes (Olyset and Permanet) are now on the market while others are being developed (Moerman et al., 2003). One early problem with the Vestergaard-manufactured Permanet was inconsistency among batches; in a study of randomly-sampled new unwashed, traditionally washed, and up to 18 months field-used products, insecticide concentration was much reduced after two washes, and mosquito mortality reached unacceptably low levels after only 12 months (Muller et al., 2002). These problems have presumably been rectified since Permanets produced by Vestergaard are now approved by WHO and production is slated to increase to one million nets per month (Personal communication, B. Greenwood, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, March 2004). Indoor Residual Insecticide Spraying Sprayed insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes were introduced on a large scale in the mid-1930s. Pyrethrum was first used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in southern Africa and India and later replaced by DDT after World War II. IRS is most effective in reducing mosquitoes that rest indoors following a blood meal. To be effective, IRS does not have to kill all Anopheles at once but simply prevent a large proportion from surviving 12 to 14 days (the time it takes for a malaria parasite to develop to the infective stage within the mosquito). Even with the hardiest vectors, this can be achieved with a daily mortality of 40 to 50 percent. In places with lower malaria endemicity, daily mosquito mortality of 20 to 25 percent generally is adequate (Beales and Gilles, 2002). Just as ITNs extend benefits to nonusers in the community, IRS is especially effective when applied on a large scale, since this maximizes the reduction in mosquito lifespan, and overall transmission. This so-called

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance mass effect has been well documented in a number of IRS trials. Specific examples include three demonstration projects in Africa: an observational study in the Pare-Taveta Malaria Scheme in Tanzania where dieldrin reduced malaria transmission from an annual EIR of 10-50 to <1 (Pringle, 1969; Bradley, 1991); a trial in Kisumu, Kenya, where IRS with fenitrothion reduced malaria transmission by 96 percent compared to baseline over 2 years (Payne et al., 1976); and the Garki project in northern Nigeria where IRS with propoxur also substantially decreased transmission and improved infant and child mortality (Molineaux, 1985) (Box 8-1). Over the last 30 years, DDT-based IRS has declined, in part, because of DDT resistance among malaria vectors. A lack of sustained government support and financing as well as general disapproval of DDT by the international community also have contributed to IRS’s restricted use in sub-Saharan Africa. In parts of Asia, Latin America, and southern and northeastern Africa where IRS is still used, it is typically organized and paid for by governments (for example, government-funded DDT house spraying was recently reinstated in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, and the Madagascar highlands because of rising prevalence of pyrethroid-resistant A. funestus vectors and human malaria cases [Hargreaves et al., 2000]). IRS also is used in urban epidemics and refugee camps worldwide, and sometimes provided by foreign and multinational companies for the protection of employees and local communities in malaria-endemic areas (Sharp et al., 2002a). The implementation of IRS is not trivial, and, if incorrectly performed, may be quite ineffective (Shiff, 2002). Houses and animal shelters within a target area should receive IRS before the start of the transmission season and at regular intervals thereafter. Before application of insecticide, all furniture, hanging clothing, cooking utensils, food and other items should be removed from human habitations, and left covered outside. Emulsions or solutions of insecticide are often preferred over suspensions of water-dispersible powders, which leave whitish deposits. Mud and porous plaster walls retain less IRS insecticide than wood or non-absorptive surfaces. Barriers to ITN and IRS Use ITNs and IRS both require user cooperation, albeit in different ways. Current-generation ITNs must be properly installed, faithfully used, and retreated with insecticide every 6 to 12 months in order to maintain extended efficacy. IRS, in comparison, is passive but intrusive. Some residents of endemic areas forfeit IRS benefits by painting or replastering sprayed walls, while other families evade IRS altogether by locking their houses during the spraying round (Mnzava et al., 2001; Goodman et al., 2001). In addition, some housing or shelter materials such as plastic sheeting are not amenable to residual spraying.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Clyde DF. 1975. Immunization of man against falciparum and vivax malaria by use of attenuated sporozoites. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24(3):397-401. Cohen S, McGregor IA, Carrington S. 1961. Gamma-globulin and acquired immunity to human malaria. Nauchni trudove na Visshiia meditsinski institut, Sofiia 192:733-737. Collins FH. 1994. Prospects for malaria control through the genetic manipulation of its vectors. Parasitology Today 10(10):370-371. Craig MH, Sharp BL. 1997. Comparative evaluation of four techniques for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91(3):279-282. Curtis CF. 1968. Possible use of translocations to fix desirable genes in insect pest populations. Nature 218(139):368-369. Curtis CF, Lines JD. 2000. Should DDT be banned by international treaty? Parasitology Today 16(3):119-121. Curtis CF, Myamba J, Wilkes TJ. 1992. Various pyrethroids on bednets and curtains. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 87(Suppl 3):363-370. D’Alessandro U, Leach A, Drakeley CJ, Bennett S, Olaleye BO, Fegan GW, Jawara M, Langerock P, George MO, Targett GA. 1995. Efficacy trial of malaria vaccine SPf66 in Gambian infants. Lancet 346(8973):462-467. D’Alessandro U, Langerock P, Bennett S, Francis N, Cham K, Greenwood BM. 1996. The impact of a national impregnated bed net programme on the outcome of pregnancy in primigravidae in the Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90(5):487-492. Desowitz R. 1999. Milestones in the history of malaria. In: Wahlgren M, Perlmann P, eds. Malaria. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. Diallo DA, Habluetzel A, Cuzin-Ouattara N, Nebie I, Sanogo E, Cousens SN, Esposito F. 1999. Widespread distribution of insecticide-impregnated curtains reduces child mortality, prevalence and intensity of malaria infection, and malaria transmission in rural Burkina Faso. Parassitologia 41(1-3):377-381. Dolan G, ter Kuile FO, Jacoutot V, White NJ, Luxemburger C, Malankirii L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F. 1993. Bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87(6):620-626. East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment (EANMAT). 2003. The efficacy of antimalarial monotherapies, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine in east Africa: Implications for sub-regional policy. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8(10):860-867. Ezard N. 2001. Research in complex emergencies. Medical emergency relief international. Lancet 357(9250):149. Farnert A, Arez AP, Correia AT, Bjorkman A, Snounou G, do Rosario V. 1999. Sampling and storage of blood and the detection of malaria parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93(1):50-53. Garfield RM, Vermund SH. 1983. Changes in malaria incidence after mass drug administration in Nicaragua. Lancet 2(8348):500-503. Garner P, Gulmezoglu AM. 2000. Prevention versus treatment for malaria in pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2):CD000169. Giglioli G, Rutten FJ, Ramjattan S. 1967. Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana, with observations on a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 36(2):283-301.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Gimnig JE, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, Vulule JM, Schoute E, Kamau L, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA. 2003a. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):115-120. Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, Mathenge EM, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, Hightower AW, Hawley WA. 2003b. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):16-22. Glass RI, Cates W Jr, Nieburg P, Davis C, Russbach R, Nothdurft H, Peel S, Turnbull R. 1980. Rapid assessment of health status and preventive-medicine needs of newly arrived Kampuchean refugees, Sa Kaeo, Thailand. Lancet 1(8173):868-872. Goodman CA, Coleman PG, Mills AJ. 1999. Cost-effectiveness of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 354(9176):378-385. Goodman CA, Mnzava AE, Dlamini SS, Sharp BL, Mthembu DJ, Gumede JK. 2001. Comparison of the cost and cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets and residual house-spraying in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6(4):280-295. Graves P, Gelband H. 2003. Vaccines for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):CD000129. Graves PM. 1998. Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of vaccines and insecticide impregnation of mosquito nets for the prevention of malaria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 92(4):399-410. Graves PM, Burkot TR, Carter R, Cattani JA, Lagog M, Parker J, Brabin BJ, Gibson FD, Bradley DJ, Alpers MP. 1988. Measurement of malarial infectivity of human populations to mosquitoes in the Madang area, Papua, New Guinea. Parasitology 96(Pt 2):251-263. Greenwood B. 1999. What can the residents of malaria endemic countries do to protect themselves against malaria? Parassitologia 41(1-3):295-299. Greenwood B. 2002. The molecular epidemiology of malaria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7(12):1012-1021. Greenwood B. 2004. The use of anti-malarial drugs to prevent malaria in the population of malaria-endemic areas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70:1-7. Greenwood B, Alonso P. 2002. Malaria vaccine trials. Chemical Immunology 80:366-395. Greenwood B, Mutabingwa T. 2002. Malaria in 2002. Nature 415(6872):670-672. Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Bradley AK, Snow RW, Byass P, Hayes RJ, N’Jie AB. 1988. Comparison of two strategies for control of malaria within a primary health care programme in the Gambia. Lancet 1(8595):1121-1127. Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Snow RW, Byass P, Bennett S, Hatib-N’Jie AB. 1989. The effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis given by traditional birth attendants on the course and outcome of pregnancy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(5):589-594. Greenwood BM, David PH, Otoo-Forbes LN, Allen SJ, Alonso PL, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, Byass P, Hurwitz M, Menon A, Snow RW. 1995. Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89(6):629-633. Guerin PJ, Olliaro P, Nosten F, Druilhe P, Laxminarayan R, Binka F, Kilama WL, Ford N, White NJ. 2002. Malaria: Current status of control, diagnosis, treatment, and a proposed agenda for research and development. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2(9):564-573.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Guiguemde TR, Sturchler D, Ouedraogo JB, Drabo M, Etlinger H, Douchet C, Gbary AR, Haller L, Kambou S, Fernex M. 1990. [Vaccination against malaria: Initial trial with an ant-sporozoite vaccine, (Nanp)3-Tt (Ro 40-2361) in Africa (Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso)]. [French]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 83(2):217-227. Guillet P, Alnwick D, Cham MK, Neira M, Zaim M, Heymann D, Mukelabai K. 2001. Long-lasting treated mosquito nets: A breakthrough in malaria prevention. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(10):998. Gunawardena DM, Wickremasinghe AR, Muthuwatta L, Weerasingha S, Rajakaruna J, Senanayaka T, Kotta PK, Attanayake N, Carter R, Mendis KN. 1998. Malaria risk factors in an endemic region of Sri Lanka, and the impact and cost implications of risk factor-based interventions. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58(5): 533-542. Gyapong M, Gyapong JO, Amankwa J, Asedem J, Sory E. 1996. Introducing insecticide impregnated bednets in an area of low bednet usage: An exploratory study in North-east Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1(3):328-333. Habluetzel A, Diallo DA, Esposito F, Lamizana L, Pagnoni F, Lengeler C, Traore C, Cousens SN. 1997. Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso? Tropical Medicine and International Health 2(9):855-862. Hargreaves K, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Mthembu J, Coetzee M. 2000. Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(2):181-189. Harper PA, Lisansky ET, Sasse BE. 1947. Malaria and other insect-borne diseases in the South Pacific campaign. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 27(1 Suppl):1942-1945. Harrison, G. 1978. Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man: A History of the Hostilities Since 1880. New York: Dutton. Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, Nahlen BL, Gimnig JE, Kariuki SK, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW. 2003a. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in Western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):121-127. Hawley WA, ter Kuile FO, Steketee RS, Nahlen BL, Terlouw DJ, Gimnig JE, Shi YP, Vulule JM, Alaii JA, Hightower AW, Kolczak MS, Kariuki SK, Phillips-Howard PA. 2003b. Implications of the Western Kenya permethrin-treated bed net study for policy, program implementation, and future research. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):168-173. Hay S, Renshaw M, Ochola SA, Noor AM, Snow RW. 2003. Performance of forecasting, warning and detection of malaria epidemics in the highlands of Western Kenya. Trends in Parasitology 19(9):394-399. Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Randolph SE, Stern DI, Cox J, Shanks GD, Snow RW. 2002. Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African Highlands. Trends in Parasitology 18(12):530-534. Hemingway J, Bates I. 2003. Malaria: Past problems and future prospects. After more than a decade of neglect, malaria is finally back on the agenda for both biomedical research and public health politics. EMBO Reports 4(SPEC. ISS.):S29-S31. Hewitt S, Kamal M, Muhammad N, Rowland M. 1994. An entomological investigation of the likely impact of cattle ownership on malaria in an Afghan refugee camp in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 8(2):160-164. Hii JL, Smith T, Mai A, Mellor S, Lewis D, Alexander N, Alpers MP. 1997. Spatial and temporal variation in abundance of anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Medical Entomology 34(2):193-205.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Hii JL, Smith T, Mai A, Ibam E, Alpers MP. 2000. Comparison between anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) caught using different methods in a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90(3):211-219. Hoffman SL. 2003. Current status of malaria vaccine development efforts. Paper commissioned by the Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. Holder AA, Guevara Patino JA, Uthaipibull C, Syed SE, Ling IT, Scott-Finnigan T, Blackman MJ. 1999. Merozoite surface protein 1, immune evasion, and vaccines against asexual blood stage malaria. Parassitologia 41(1-3):409-414. Howard SC, Omumbo J, Nevill C, Some ES, Donnelly CA, Snow RW. 2000. Evidence for a mass community effect of insecticide-treated bednets on the incidence of malaria on the Kenyan coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94(4):357-360. Hung LQ, De Vries PJ, Giao PT, Nam NV, Binh TQ, Chong MT, Quoc NTTA, Thanh TN, Hung LN, Kager PA. 2002. Control of malaria: A successful experience from Viet Nam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80(8):660-666. Ito J, Ghosh A, Moreira LA, Wimmer EA, Jacobs-Lorena M. 2002. Transgenic anopheline mosquitoes impaired in transmission of a malaria parasite. Nature 417(6887):452-455. James AA, Beerntsen BT, Capurro Mde L, Coates CJ, Coleman J, Jasinskiene N, Krettli AU. 1999. Controlling malaria transmission with genetically-engineered, plasmodium-resistant mosquitoes: Milestones in a model system. Parassitologia 41(1-3):461-471. Jonkman A, Chibwe RA, Khoromana CO, Liabunya UL, Chaponda ME, Kandiero GE, Molyneux ME, Taylor TE. 1995. Cost-saving through microscopy-based versus presumptive diagnosis of malaria in adult outpatients in Malawi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73(2):223-227. Kaneko A, Taleo G, Kalkoa M, Yamar S, Kobayakawa T, Bjorkman A. 2000. Malaria Eradication on Islands. [See Comment]. Lancet 356(9241):1560-1564. Karch S, Asidi N, Manzambi ZM, Salaun JJ. 1992. Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes in swamps and rice fields in Zaire. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 8(4):376-380. Karch S, Garin B, Asidi N, Manzambi Z, Salaun JJ, Mouchet J. 1993. [Mosquito nets impregnated against malaria in Zaire]. [French]. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale 73(1):37-53. Kaul I, Faust M. 2001. Global public goods and health: Taking the agenda forward. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(9):869-874. Kazmi JH, Pandit K. 2001. Disease and dislocation: The impact of refugee movements on the geography of malaria in NWFP, Pakistan. Social Science and Medicine 52(7):1043-1055. Khaemba BM, Mutani A, Bett MK. 1994. Studies of anopheline mosquitoes transmitting malaria in a newly developed highland urban area: A case study of Moi University and its environs. East African Medical Journal 71(3):159-164. Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG. 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: Lessons for malaria control in Africa? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2(10):618-627. Kovats RS, Bouma MJ, Hajat S, Worrall E, Haines A. 2003. El Niño and health. Lancet 362(9394):1481-1489. Kumar S, Epstein JE, Richie TL, Nkrumah FK, Soisson L, Carucci DJ, Hoffman SL. 2002. A multilateral effort to develop DNA vaccines against falciparum malaria. Trends in Parasitology 18(3):129-135. Kwiatkowski D, Marsh K. 1997. Development of a malaria vaccine. Lancet 350(9092):1696-1701.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Lengeler C. 2001. Comparison of malaria control interventions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(1):77. Lindblade KA, Walker ED, Onapa AW, Katungu J, Wilson ML. 1999. Highland malaria in Uganda: Prospective analysis of an epidemic associated with El Niño. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93(5):480-487. Lindsay SW, Gibson ME. 1988. Bednets revisited—old idea, new angle. Parasitology Today 4(10):270-272. Lindsay SW, Snow RW. 1988. The trouble with eaves: House entry by vectors of malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82(4):645-646. Lindsay SW, Ewald JA, Samung Y, Apiwathnasorn C, Nosten F. 1998. Thanaka (Limonia acidissima) and deet (di-methyl benzamide) mixture as a mosquito repellent for use by Karen women. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 12(3):295-301. Loevinsohn ME. 1994. Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda. Lancet 343(8899):714-718. Luxemburger C, Thwai KL, White NJ, Webster HK, Kyle DE, Maelankirri L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F. 1996. The epidemiology of malaria in a Karen population on the western border of Thailand. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90(2):105-111. Luxemburger C, Rigal J, Nosten F. 1998. Health care in refugee camps. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92(2):129-130. Magesa SM, Wilkes TJ, Mnzava AE, Njunwa KJ, Myamba J, Kivuyo MD, Hill N, Lines JD, Curtis CF. 1991. Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bed nets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 2. Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Tropica 49(2):97-108. Mahanty S, Saul A, Miller LH. 2003. Progress in the development of recombinant and synthetic blood-stage malaria vaccines. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3781-3788. Makemba AM, Winch PJ, Makame VM, Mehl GL, Premji Z, Minjas JN, Shiff CJ. 1996. Treatment practices for degedege, a locally recognized febrile illness, and implications for strategies to decrease mortality from severe malaria in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1(3):305-313. Malakooti MA, Biomndo K, Shanks GD. 1998. Reemergence of epidemic malaria in the highlands of western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(4):671-676. Marbiah NT, Petersen E, David K, Magbity E, Lines J, Bradley DJ. 1998. A controlled trial of lambda-cyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets and/or dapsone/pyrimethamine for malaria control in Sierra Leone. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58(1):1-6. Marsh K, Howard RJ. 1986. Antigens induced on erythrocytes by P. falciparum: Expression of diverse and conserved determinants. Science 231(4734):150-153. Massaga JJ, Kitua AY, Lemnge MM, Akida JA, Malle LN, Ronn AM, Theander TG, Bygbjerg IC. 2003. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361(9372): 1853-1860. Matola YG, White GB, Magayuka SA. 1987. The changed pattern of malaria endemicity and transmission at Amani in the eastern Usambara mountains, north-eastern Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90(3):127-134. Maxwell CA, Msuya E, Sudi M, Njunwa KJ, Carneiro IA, Curtis CF. 2002. Effect of community-wide use of insecticide-treated nets for 3-4 years on malarial morbidity in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7(12):1003-1008. McGregor IA. 1974. Mechanisms of acquired immunity and epidemiological patterns of antibody responses in malaria in man. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 50(3-4):259-266.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance McGregor IA, Gilles HM, Walter JH, Davies AH, Pearson FA. 1956. Effects of heavy and repeated malaria infection on Gambian infants and children. Effects of erythrocytic parasitization. British Medical Journal ii:686-692. Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Vounatsou P, Aponte JJ, Font F, Acosta CJ, Schellenberg DM, Galindo CM, Kimario J, Urassa H, Brabin B, Smith TA, Kitua AY, Tanner M, Alonso PL. 1997. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 350(9081):844-850. Meuwissen JHET. 1964. The use of medicated salt in an antimalaria campaign in west New Guinea. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 16:245-255. Mharakurwa S, Manyame B, Shiff CJ. 1997. Trial of the ParaSight-F test for malaria diagnosis in the primary health care system, Zimbabwe. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2(6):544-550. Mnzava AE, Sharp BL, Mthembu DJ, le Sueur D, Dlamini SS, Gumede JK, Kleinschmidt I. 2001. Malaria control—two years’ use of insecticide-treated bednets compared with insecticide house spraying in Kwazulu-Natal. South African Medical Journal 91(11):978-983. Moerman F, Lengeler C, Chimumbwa J, Talisuna A, Erhart A, Coosemans M, D’Alessandro U. 2003. The contribution of health-care services to a sound and sustainable malaria-control policy. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 3(2):99-102. Molineaux L. 1985. The impact of parasitic diseases and their control, with an emphasis on malaria and Africa. In: Vallin J, Lopez AD, eds. Health Policy, Social Policy and Mortality Prospects. Paris: IUSSP. Moody A. 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15(1):66-78. Moore SA, Surgey EG, Cadwgan AM. 2002. Malaria vaccines: Where are we and where are we going? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2(12):737-743. Moorthy VS, Good MF, Hill AVS. 2004. Malaria vaccine developments. Lancet 363(9403): 150-156. Morley D, Woodland M, Cuthbertson WF. 1964. Controlled trial of pyrimethamine in pregnant women in an African village. British Medical Journal i(5384):667-668. Mouchet J. 1998. [Origin of malaria epidemics on the plateaus of Madagascar and the mountains of east and south Africa]. [French]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 91(1):64-66. Muheki C, Barnes K, McIntyre D. 2003. Economic Evaluation of Recent Malaria Control Interventions in KwaZulu, Natal, South Africa: SEACAT Evaluation. Cape Town: SEACAT. Muller O, Ido K, Traore C. 2002. Evaluation of a prototype long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net under field conditions in rural Burkina Faso. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96(5):483-484. Murray CK, Bell D, Gasser RA, Wongsrichanalai C. 2003. Rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8(10):876-883. Nahlen BL, Clark JP, Alnwick D. 2003. Insecticide-treated bed nets. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):1-2. Nevill CG, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Mutemi W, New L, Marsh K, Lengeler C, Snow RW. 1996. Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1(2): 139-146.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Nosten F, Luxemburger C, Kyle DE, Ballou WR, Wittes J, Wah E, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Gordon DM, White NJ, Sadoff JC, Heppner DG, Bathe K, Blood J, Brockman A, Cobley UT, Hacking D, Hogg D, Kyaw HU, Maelankiri L. 1996. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of SPf66 malaria vaccine in children in northwestern Thailand. Lancet 348(9029):701-707. Nosten F, Hien TT, White NJ. 1998. Use of artemisinin derivatives for the control of malaria. [Erratum appears in Medecine Tropicale (Mars 1998) 58(4):368]. Medecine Tropicale 58(3 Suppl):45-49. Nosten F, van Vugt M, Price R, Luxemburger C, Thway KL, Brockman A, McGready R, ter Kuile F, Looareesuwan S, White NJ. 2000. Effects of artesunate-mefloquine combination on incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and mefloquine resistance in western Thailand: A prospective study. Lancet 356(9226):297-302. Ockenhouse CF, Sun PF, Lanar DE, Wellde BT, Hall BT, Kester K, Stoute JA, Magill A, Krzych U, Farley L, Wirtz RA, Sadoff JC, Kaslow DC, Kumar S, Church LW, Crutcher JM, Wizel B, Hoffman S, Lalvani A, Hill AV, Tine JA, Guito KP, de Taisne C, Anders R, Ballou WR. 1998. Phase I/IIa safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of NYVAC-Pf7, a pox-vectored, multiantigen, multistage vaccine candidate for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Journal of Infectious Diseases 177(6):1664-1673. PAHO. 1995. Regional status of malaria in the Americas. Epidemiologic Bulletin 16:10-14. Parise ME, Ayisi JG, Nahlen BL, Schultz LJ, Roberts JM, Misore A, Muga R, Oloo AJ, Steketee RW. 1998. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of placental malaria in an area of Kenya with a high prevalence of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59(5):813-822. Patarroyo ME, Armador R. 1999. The first and toward the second generation of malaria vaccines. In: Wahlgren M, Perlmann P, eds. Malaria. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. Payne D. 1988. Did medicated salt hasten the spread of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum? Parasitology Today 4(4):112-115. Payne D, Grab B, Fontaine RE, Hempel JH. 1976. Impact of control measures on malaria transmission and general mortality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 54(4): 369-377. Perkins BA, Zucker JR, Otieno J, Jafari HS, Paxton L, Redd SC, Nahlen BL, Schwartz B, Oloo AJ, Olango C, Gove S, Campbell CC. 1997. Evaluation of an algorithm for integrated management of childhood illness in an area of Kenya with high malaria transmission. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75(1 Suppl):33-42. Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, Ter Kuile FO, Alaii JA, Gimnig JE, Arudo J, Vulule JM, Odhacha A, Kachur SP, Schoute E, Rosen DH, Sexton JD, Oloo AJ, Hawley WA. 2003. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):23-29. Phu NH, Day NPJ. 1995. Intraleukocytic malaria pigment and prognosis in severe malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89:197-199. Pinotti M. 1954. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria by the association of an antimalarial drug to the sodium chloride used daily in the preparation of meals. In: Fifth International Congress of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, 1953, Vol. 2. Istanbul, Turkey. Piper R, Lebras J, Wentworth L, Hunt-Cooke A, Houze S, Chiodini P, Makler M. 1999. Immunocapture diagnostic assays for malaria using plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60(1):109-118.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Pitt S, Pearcy BE, Stevens RH, Sharipov A, Satarov K, Banatvala N. 1998. War in Tajikistan and re-emergence of Plasmodium falciparum. Lancet 352(9136):1279. Plowe CV, Wellems TE. 1995. Molecular approaches to the spreading problem of drug resistant malaria. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 390:197-209. Poveda G, Rojas W, Quinones ML, Velez ID, Mantilla RI, Ruiz D, Zuluaga JS, Rua GL. 2001. Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(5):489-493. Pringle G. 1969. Experimental malaria control and demography in a rural East African community: A retrospect. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 63:2-18. Prinsen Geerligs PD, Brabin BJ, Eggelte TA. 2003. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81(3):205-216. Ranson H, Claudianos C, Ortelli F, Abgrall C, Hemingway J, Sharakhova MV, Unger MF, Collins FH, Feyereisen R. 2002. Evolution of supergene families associated with insecticide resistance. Science 298(5591):179-181. Redd SC, Bloland PB, Kazembe PN, Patrick E, Tembenu R, Campbell CC. 1992. Usefulness of clinical case-definitions in guiding therapy for African children with malaria or pneumonia . Lancet 340(8828):1140-1143. Rey JL, Cavallo JD, Milleliri JM, L’Hoest S, Soares JL, Piny N, Coue JC, Jouan A. 1996. [Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in the camps of Rwandan refugees in the Goma region of in Zaire (September 1994)]. [French]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 89(3):204-208. Rickman LS, Long GW, Oberst R, Cabanban A, Sangalang R, Smith JI, Chulay JD, Hoffman SL. 1989. Rapid diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange staining of centrifuged parasites. Lancet 1(8629):68-71. Rimon MM, Kheng S, Hoyer S, Thach V, Ly S, Permin AE, Pieche S. 2003. Malaria dipsticks beneficial for IMCI in Cambodia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8(6):536-543. Robert V, Carnevale P. 1991. Influence of deltamethrin treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou Valley, Burkina Faso. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 69(6):735-740. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape JF, Duchemin JB, Warren M, Beier JC. 2003. Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(2):169-176. Roberts DR, Manguin S, Mouchet J. 2000. DDT house spraying and re-emerging malaria. Lancet 356(9226):330-332. Rogerson SJ, Chaluluka E, Kanjala M, Mkundika P, Mhango C, Molyneux ME. 2000. Intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnancy: Effectiveness against malaria morbidity in Blantyre, Malawi, in 1997-99. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94(5):549-553. Romi R, Ravoniharimelina B, Ramiakajato M, Majori G. 1993. Field trials of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus (Strain 2362) formulations against Anopheles arabiensis in the central highlands of Madagascar. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 9(3):325-329. Rowland M, Nosten F. 2001. Malaria epidemiology and control in refugee camps and complex emergencies. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 95(8):741-754. Rowley J, Cham B, Pinder M. 1999. Availability and affordability of insecticide of treating bednets in The Gambia. Presentation at the meeting of the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Washington, DC: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Russell PF. 1952. Nation-wide malaria eradication projects. Anais do Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (Lisbon) 9(2):331-338. Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Vidal J, Tanner M, Mshinda H, Alonso P. 2001. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357(9267):1471-1477. Schofield CJ, White GB. 1984. House design and domestic vectors of disease. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(3):285-292. Schultz LJ, Steketee RW, Macheso A, Kazembe P, Chitsulo L, Wirima JJ. 1994. The efficacy of antimalarial regimens containing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and/or chloroquine in preventing peripheral and placental Plasmodium falciparum infection among pregnant women in Malawi . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 51(5):515-522. Shanks GD, Biomndo K, Hay SI, Snow RW. 2000. Changing patterns of clinical malaria since 1965 among a tea estate population located in the Kenyan highlands. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94(3):253-255. Sharp B, van Wyk P, Sikasote JB, Banda P, Kleinschmidt I. 2002a. Malaria control by residual insecticide spraying in Chingola and Chililabombwe, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7(9):732-736. Sharp TW, Burkle FM Jr, Vaughn AF, Chotani R, Brennan RJ. 2002b. Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34(Suppl 5):S215-S228. Shiff C. 2002. Integrated approach to malaria control. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15(2):278-293. Shretta R, Omumbo J, Rapuoda B, Snow RW. 2000. Using evidence to change antimalarial drug policy in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5(11):755-764. Shulman CE, Dorman EK, Talisuna AO, Lowe BS, Nevill C, Snow RW, Jilo H, Peshu N, Bulmer JN, Graham S, Marsh K. 1998. A community randomized controlled trial of insecticide-treated bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia among primigravid women on the Kenyan coast. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3(3):197-204. Shulman CE, Dorman EK, Cutts F, Kawuondo K, Bulmer JN, Peshu N, Marsh K. 1999. Intermittent sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to prevent severe anaemia secondary to malaria in pregnancy: A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 353(9153):632-636. Silamut K, White NJ. 1993. Relation of the stage of parasite development in the peripheral blood to prognosis in severe falciparum malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87(4):436-443. Sina BJ, Aultman K. 2001. Resisting resistance. Trends in Parasitology 17(7):305-306. Singh N, Saxena A, Valecha N. 2000. Field evaluation of the ICT Malaria P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection in forest villages of Chhindwara, central India . Tropical Medicine and International Health 5(11):765-770. Snow RW, Gilles HM. 2002. The epidemiology of malaria. In: Warrell DA, Gilles HM, eds. Essential Malariology. 4th ed. London: Arnold Publishing. Snow RW, Bradley AK, Hayes R, Byass P, Greenwood BM. 1987. Does woodsmoke protect against malaria? Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 81(4):449-451. Snow RW, McCabe E, Mbogo CN, Molyneux CS, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Nevill CG. 1999. The effect of delivery mechanisms on the uptake of bed net re-impregnation in Kilifi district, Kenya. Health Policy and Planning 14(1):18-25. Soderlund DM, Bloomquist JR. 1989. Neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides. Annual Review of Entomology 34:77-96.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Stepniewska K, Taylor WRJ, Mayxay M, Smithuis F, Guthmann J-P, Barnes K, Myint H, Price R, Olliaro P, Pukrittayakamee S, Hien TT, Farrar J, Nosten F, Day NPJ, White NJ. In press. The in vivo assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy in falciparum malaria; the duration of follow-up. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Strickland GT, Zafar-Latif A, Fox E, Khaliq AA, Chowdhry MA. 1987. Endemic malaria in four villages of the Pakistani province of Punjab. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81(1):36-41. Tabashnik BE. 1989. Managing resistance with multiple pesticide tactics: Theory, evidence, and recommendations. Journal of Economic Entomology 82(5):1263-1269. Takken W. 2002. Do insecticide-treated bed nets have an effect on malaria vectors? Tropical Medicine and International Health 7(12):1022-1030. Talisuna AO, Langi P, Bakyaita N, Egwang T, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins W, Van Marck E, D’Alessandro U. 2002. Intensity of malaria transmission, antimalarial-drug use and resistance in Uganda: What is the relationship between these three factors? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96(3):310-317. Taverne J. 1999. DDT—to ban or not to ban? Parasitology Today 15(5):180-181. ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki SK, Phillips-Howard PA, Mirel LB, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Shi YP, Kolczak MS, Lal AA, Vulule JM, Nahlen BL. 2003a. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):68-77. ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Kariuki SK, Shi YP, Kolczak MS, Lal AA, Vulule JM, Nahlen BL. 2003b. Reduction of malaria during pregnancy by permethrin-treated bed nets in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in Western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(4 Suppl):50-60. Tharavanij S. 1990. New developments in malaria diagnostic techniques. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 21(1):3-16. Thimasarn K, Sirichaisinthop J, Vijaykadga S, Tansophalaks S, Yamokgul P, Laomiphol A, Palananth C, Thamewat U, Thaithong S, Rooney W. 1995. In vivo study of the response of Plasmodium falciparum to standard mefloquine/sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine (MSP) treatment among gem miners returning from Cambodia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 26(2):204-212. Tine JA, Lanar DE, Smith DM, Wellde BT, Schultheiss P, Ware LA, Kauffman EB, Wirtz RA, De Taisne C, Hui GS, Chang SP, Church P, Hollingdale MR, Kaslow DC, Hoffman S, Guito KP, Ballou WR, Sadoff JC, Paoletti E. 1996. NYVAC-Pf7: A poxvirus-vectored, multiantigen, multistage vaccine candidate for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infection and Immunity 64(9):3833-3844. Trape JF, Zoulani A. 1987. Malaria and urbanization in central Africa: The example of Brazzaville. Part III: Relationships between urbanization and the intensity of malaria transmission. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81(Suppl 2):19-25. Trape JF, Lefebvre-Zante E, Legros F, Ndiaye G, Bouganali H, Druilhe P, Salem G. 1992. Vector density gradients and the epidemiology of urban malaria in Dakar, Senegal. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 47(2):181-189. Trape JF, Pison G, Spiegel A, Enel C, Rogier C. 2002. Combating malaria in Africa. Trends in Parasitology 18(5):224-230. United Nations. 1999. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision, Key Findings. New York: United Nations Population Division. Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH. 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6(9):677-687.

OCR for page 197
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Van der Hoek W, Konradsen F, Dijkstra DS, Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP. 1998. Risk factors for malaria: A microepidemiological study in a village in Sri Lanka. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92(3):265-269. Verdrager J. 1986. Epidemiology of the emergence and spread of drug-resistant falciparum malaria in south-east Asia and Australasia. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89(6):277-289. Von Seidlein L, Greenwood BM. 2003. Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs. Trends in Parasitology 19(10):452-460. Von Seidlein L, Clarke S, Alexander N, Manneh F, Doherty T, Pinder M, Walraven G, Greenwood B. 2002. Treatment uptake by individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum in rural Gambia, West Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80(10):790-796. Warhurst DC, Williams JE. 1996. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Journal of Clinical Pathology 49(7):533-538. Weber MW, Mulholland EK, Jaffar S, Troedsson H, Gove S, Greenwood BM. 1997. Evaluation of an algorithm for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in an area with seasonal malaria in the Gambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75(Suppl 1):25-32. White NJ. 1999. Delaying antimalarial drug resistance with combination chemotherapy. Parassitologia 41(1-3):301-308. White NJ, Silamut K. 1989. Rapid diagnosis of malaria. Lancet 1(8635):435. WHO. 1979. Seventeenth Report of the Expert Committee on Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 1992a. Fifteenth Report of the Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Technical Report Series No. 818. Vector Resistance to Pesticides. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 1992b. Presentation at the meeting of the World Declaration on the Control of Malaria, Ministerial Conference on Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 1993. WHO Technical Report Series. Plan of Action for Malaria Control 1993-2000. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 1996a. Report of the WHO Informal Consultation WHO/HQ, Geneva 7-11 October 1996. Evaluation and Testing of Insecticides. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 1996b. A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74(1):47-54. WHO. 1999. Report of the WHO Informal Cosultation, April 28-30, 1999. Draft Guideline Specifications for Bacterial Larvicides for Public Health Use. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO. 2000. WHO Expert Committee Report on Malaria: 20th Report. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 892. WHO. 2001. Malaria Early Warning System, Concepts, Indicators, and Partners, A Framework for Field Research in Africa. WHO/CDS/RBM. WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides. 1970. Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/UNICEF. 2003. The Africa Malaria Report 2003. Geneva: World Health Organization. Zucker JR. 1996. Changing patterns of autochthonous malaria transmission in the United States: A review of recent outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2(1):37-43.