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OCR for page 329
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance Acronyms and Abbreviations ACAME an association of francophone West African countries’ central medical stores ACSI-CCCD Africa Child Survival Initiative—Combating Childhood Communicable Diseases Project ACT artemisinin combination therapy ACTMalaria Asian Collaborative Training Network for Malaria AL artemether-lumefantrine A+M artesunate plus mefloquine AMI Amazon Malaria Initiative APLs adaptable program loans AQ amodiaquine AS artesunate ATM artemether ATS artemisinin AUC area under the curve BOMA Burden of Malaria in Africa Bsph Bacillus sphaericus Bti Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis CHAZ Churches Health Association of Zambia CIF cost, insurance, freight CMH Commission on Macroeconomics and Health CMS Central Medical Stores (Cambodia)
OCR for page 330
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance CNM National Malaria Center (Cambodia) CNS central nervous system COMESA Common Market for Eastern & Southern Africa CQ chloroquine CRHCS East and Southern Africa Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat CRPF chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum CRPV chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax CSA chondroitin sulphate A DALY disability-adjusted life-year DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane DDU duty delivery unpaid DEET N,N-diethyl-m toluamide (an insect repellant) DFWP duty-free wholesaler price DHA dihydroartemisinin DHFR dihydrofolate reductase-thymidilate synthase DHPS dihydropteroate synthase DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNDi Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DOTS directly-observed therapy, short course (refers to treatment for tuberculosis) DSS Demographic Surveillance Site (or System) EANMAT East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatments ECG electrocardiogram EDB Essential Drugs Bureau (Cambodia) EIR entomologic inoculation rate EMVI European Malaria Vaccine Initiative EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G8 Group of Eight [leading industrialized countries] GAVI Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization GDF TB Global Drug Facility GDP gross domestic product GFATM Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria GMR a private South African company that manages medical stores GNI gross national income GSK GlaxoSmithKline
OCR for page 331
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance HIPC highly indebted poor countries HIV human immunodeficiency virus HMS hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly HRP-2 histidine-rich protein 2 IDA International Development Association IFPMA International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illness INN International Nonproprietary Name IOM Institute of Medicine (of The National Academies) IPT intermittent preventive treatment IPTc intermittent preventive treatment in children IPTi intermittent preventive treatment in infants IPTp intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women IRS indoor residual spraying ITC insecticide-treated curtain ITN insecticide-treated (bed) net kdr knock down resistance LICUS low income countries under stress MARA Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa MDA mass drug administration MDGs Millennium Development Goals MDR multidrug resistance MEWS malaria early warning system MIC minimum inhibitory concentration MIM Multilateral Initiative on Malaria MMSS Malaria Medicines and Supplies Service MMV Medicines for Malaria Venture MoH Ministry of Health MPC minimum parasiticidal concentration MQ mefloquine MSH Management Sciences for Health MSL Medical Stores Ltd. MSP-1 merozoite surface protein-1 MTCT maternal to child transmission MVI Malaria Vaccine Initiative NGO nongovernmental organization NIH National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
OCR for page 332
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance OTC over-the-counter PAHO Pan American Health Organization PATH Program for Appropriate Technology in Health PCR polymerase chain reaction PF parasitologic failure Pfcrt Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene Pfdhfr dihydrofolate reductase gene Pfdhps dihydropteroate synthase gene PfEMP-1 P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 Pfmdr Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene Pgh1 P-glycoprotein homologue pLDH parasite enzyme lactate dehydrogenase PNA Pharmacie Nationale d’Approvisionnement PQ piperaquine PRA Pharmacie Regionale d’Approvisionnement PRSCs poverty reduction support credits PRSP poverty reduction strategy paper QBC quantitative buffy coat test R&D research and development RACTAP Réseau d’Afrique Centrale des Thérapeutiques Antipaludiques (Central African network) RBC red blood cell RBM Roll Back Malaria RDT rapid diagnostic test RNA ribonucleic acid RTS,S a recombinant protein vaccine which pairs hepatitis B surface antigen with DNA encoding a large portion of P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein SACs structural adjustment credits SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference SALs structural adjusted loans SEACAT South East African Combination Antimalarial Therapy [Evaluation] SIT sterile insect technology SP sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine SWAp sector-wide approach
OCR for page 333
Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance T 1/2 half-life TB tuberculosis TDR the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases TEHIP Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor alpha TTF therapeutic treatment failure UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNDP United Nations Development Programme USAID U. S. Agency for International Development USAMRMC United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command VA verbal autopsy VAT value added tax VLSS Vietnam Living Standards Surveys WANMAT West African Networks for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatments WHO World Health Organization WHOPES WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme WRAIR Walter Reed Army Institute of Research ZK Zambia Kwacha (currency)
Representative terms from entire chapter: