antigen.

a molecule capable of eliciting an immune response.

antigenic diversity.

the ability of an organism to vary its antigenic features.

antigenic variation.

same as antigenic diversity.

antipyretic.

an agent that reduces fever.

arthralgia.

pain in one or more joints.

aspartate aminotransferase.

an enzyme produced by the liver. When present in abnormally high levels in the blood, it may indicate inflammation or disease of the liver or another organ.

ataxia.

a staggering gait or other inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements. This finding is symptomatic of certain nervous disorders especially involving the cerebellum.

attenuate (as in vaccine).

to reduce the virulence of a pathogenic agent.

auditory evoked potential.

electrical brain wave activity measured in response to acoustic stimulation (as sound). Evoked potentials are used as diagnostic tools to investigate potential damage to the central nervous system caused, for example, by a disease like multiple sclerosis or by a drug.


brain stem.

the part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.

bioassay.

a method of determining the relative strength of a substance (as a drug) by comparing its effect on a test organism with that of a standard preparation.

blister pack.

a form of medication packaging in which individual doses of one or more types of pill are encased in separate airtight plastic pockets, often accompanied by dosing instructions. Blister packs typically contain all of the doses needed for a single course of treatment.


cardiotoxic.

having a toxic effect on the heart.

cell-mediated immunity.

an immune process in which subpopulations of effector T cells defend against viruses and intracellular protozoal infections, such as malaria.

centrifuge.

a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects.

chemoprophylaxis.

the use of drugs to prevent infection or progression of infection to illness.

chromosome.

any of the usually linear intracellular bodies that contain the genes or hereditary factors of eukaryotic organisms, bacteria, or certain DNA viruses (e.g., bacteriophages).

cinchonism.

side effects from quinine or quinidine, reversible with lower dosages or termination of the drugs. Effects include ringing in the ears,



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