procuring, international system for, 112–121

production costs, 62–64, 63

R&D, 10, 74–75, 301–311

reduction in malaria transmission, 212–213

resistance, 172, 270–272, 276–281

safe and user-friendly, 315–316

tiered pricing, 65

treatment, 67–74, 252–253

APLs. See World Bank, Adaptable Program Loans and Credits

Apovia, 224

Artecef, 306

Arteether, 261, 306

Artemether-lumefantrine.

See also Coartem

malaria control, 214–215

toxicity of, 266–267, 268

treatment of malaria, 254, 257

Artemisia annua, x, 6, 12, 62, 81

Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT)

affordability issues, 61–62

availability, 42

clinical experience with, 263

cost-effectiveness, 66–67, 70–71

delaying emergence of resistance, xi, 4–5

discoveries in, 133–134

economic considerations, 5–6

effectiveness, 19, 69

effects, 70

evidence base for, 264–265

as first-line treatment, 3, 79, 80

global costs, 64–65

global subsidy for, 6–10, 82–83, 86–110, 121, 169, 315

monotherapies, 94, 115

negative impact of—use, 84–85

priming market for, 6

production costs, 62–64

purchase of, 52

resistance to, 2, 68, 81

role in malaria control, 22–23, 214–215

stimulating—market, 81

therapeutic advantages, x, 1

treatment models, 67–74

Artemisinins, 261–262

basic properties, 255

botanical properties, 262

clinical experience with, 263

compounds, 253, 293–294

mechanisms of action, 262–263

resistance to, 275–276

safety during pregnancy, 268–269

toxicity of, 266

Artemisone, 308

Artemotil, 306

Artesunate

artemisinins, 261–262

described, 265–266

drug class, 253

first-line drug, 43

national drug policy on, 235

public sector drug flows, 38

R&D, 307–309

social marketing, 41

treatment of malaria, 254, 257

wholesale prices, 63

Aristophanes, 125

Aristotle, 125

Aryl aminoalcohol compounds, 253

Asia, malaria in, 24–25

Asian Collaborative Training Network for Malaria (ACTMalaria), 237

Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, 47–48, 303

Atabrine (quinacrine, mepacrine), 131

Ataxia, 153

Atovaquone plus proguanil, 253, 255, 258, 294, 306.

See also Malarone

Australia, 99

Austria, 105

Azithromycin, 306, 309, 310

B

Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph), 211

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti), 211

Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, 59, 175, 176, 209

Bamako, Mali, 43

Bandafassi, Senegal, 175

Bastianelli, Giovanni, 129

Bayer, 308

Bayer Dye Works, 131

Bednets, xii, 2, 11, 27.

See also Insecticide-treated nets

Behavioral deficits, 153

Belgium, 105, 224

Benin, 98

Bhutan, 236



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