TABLE 5.1 The Geospatial Technology Competency Model

Technical Competencies

Business Competencies

Ability to assess relationships among geospatial technologies

Cartography

Computer programming skills

Environmental applications

GIS theory and applications

Geology applications

Geospatial data processing tools

Photogrammetry

Remote-sensing theory and applications

Spatial information processing

Ability to see the “big picture”

Business understanding

Buy-in, advocacy

Change management

Cost-benefit analysis, Return on Investment

Ethics modeling

Industry understanding

Legal understanding

Organization understanding

Performance analysis and evaluation

Technical writing

Technological literacy

Topology

Visioning

Analytical Competencies

Interpersonal Competencies

Creative thinking

Knowledge management

Model building skills

Problem-solving skills

Research skills

Systems thinking

Coaching

Communication

Conflict management

Feedback skills

Group process understanding

Leadership skills

Questioning

Relationship building skills

Self-knowledge, Self-management

NOTE: Core competencies are shown in bold.

SOURCE: http://geowdc.com/assessment/.

Geospatial Technology Competency Model establishes a link between competencies—the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an individual needs to do a job—and roles, which are groupings of work-related competencies. Many of the technical and analytical competencies listed in the model are directly related to the process of spatial thinking.

In short, therefore, workforce demands are changing; those demands can be met only if the K–12 education system produces graduates with the requisite skills and knowledge, with a commitment to lifelong learning, and with flexibility to adapt to change. Central to changing workforce needs are knowledge workers for the rapidly growing IT sector. Central to the IT sector and many other sectors is spatial thinking. To what extent does the K–12 educational system generate graduates with these spatial thinking skills? One answer can be found in the most recent international comparative survey of mathematics and science performance.

5.4 THE 1999 TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDY (TIMSS)

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (formerly known as the Third International Mathematics and Science Study) is the international parallel to the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education through the Na-



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