adoption can also be attributed to a number of structural limitations—access to hardware and software, intimidating software, insufficient time to learn how to use the software, and levels of technology training for teachers.

GIS has the capability to create an environment in which students learn science by doing (NRC, 1999). It can, therefore, extend the ability of students to do scientific inquiry as envisaged by the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989), National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), and Geography for Life: The National Geography Standards 1994 (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994). These standards emphasize approaching scientific tasks using the scientific method (Figure 7.7).

GIS can expand the data available for student use, the scope and sophistication of their analyses, and the range of graphic representations, allowing students to uncover and understand real-world patterns and processes. To what extent can the potential of GIS be realized?

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