Anthony R. de Souza is currently director of the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources at the National Research Council in Washington, D.C. Previously, he was executive director of the National Geography Standards Project, secretary general of the 27th International Geographical Union Congress, editor of National Geographic Research & Exploration, and editor of the Journal of Geography. He has held positions as a professor and as a visiting teacher and scholar at the George Washington University, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, University of Minnesota, University of California-Berkeley, and University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. He has served as a member of NRC committees. He holds B.A. (honors) and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Reading in England and has received numerous honors and awards, including the Medalla al Benito Juarez in 1992 and the Gilbert Grosvenor honors award from the Association of American Geographers in 1996. His research interests include the processes and mechanisms of economic development and human-environment relationships. He has published several books and more than 100 articles, reports, and reviews.