Index

A

Abstract concepts, 41, 45-47, 91

etak, 139-140

Access Excellence, 209

Advanced Visualization System (AVS), 157, 170, 171, 286

Age

and perceptual imaging, 97

and spatial skills, 101, 108, 270, 274-275

Air traffic control and controllers, 54-55, 93, 95

Alexandria Digital Library, 34-35

Algebra, 19, 91, 92, 117, 126, 130

Alpha Centauri, 62

American Forests, 180, 190

AML, 166

Andromeda Nebula, 64, 67

Animation environments, 46, 80, 105, 108, 149, 156, 157, 158, 159, 171, 182, 219, 224, 286

Anthropogeography, 88

Application program interface (API), 156, 157, 173-174

ArcCatalog, 224

ArcEditor, 222

ArcExplorer, 161, 167, 223

ArcGlobe, 224-226

Architects and architectural design, 12, 28, 40, 43, 54, 55, 95, 97, 100, 104, 141, 155, 156

ArcIMS, 222

ArcInfo, 222

ArcLessons, 209

ArcReader, 222

ArcSDE, 222

ArcView, 156, 166-167, 173, 174, 177, 180, 185-187, 190-192, 194, 196-198, 200, 201, 202, 204, 209, 222-226, 290, 291

ArcView GIS, 166, 184, 188, 222, 226

ArcVoyager, 167, 184, 185-187, 190, 191, 223, 291

Assembly instructions, 50, 51

Association for Geographic Information (AGI), 289, 291

Association of American Geographers (AAG), 292

Association of Research Libraries, 215

Astronomy. See Astrophysical spatialization

parsec unit, 62

Astrophysical spatialization

absolute magnitude, 62-63, 64, 66

beyond solar system, 60-67, 68

Copernican model, 59, 60

distance scales, 57, 60, 64, 65, 67-68

Earth shape and size, 57-58, 65, 67

epicycles, 59, 61

expertise in, 55, 57-58

frames of reference, 57-58, 59

geocentric theory, 60

heliocentric theory, 60, 61

Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, 62-64

Hubble constant and, 64-65, 68

main sequence, 63, 64

measurements, 56, 58, 60-67

parallax concept, 60, 62, 64

pattern recognition, 56

period-luminosity diagram, 64, 66

primitives, 56, 57

Ptolemaic universe, 59, 60, 61

role of, 67-68, 94

solar system, 59, 67

spectroscopic parallaxes, 64

standard candle, 64

time dimension, 56, 57, 59

universe structure and evolution, 56-57, 64, 68

Atlas GIS, 167

Atmospheric physics/physicists, 80, 81



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Learning To Think Spatially Index A Abstract concepts, 41, 45-47, 91 etak, 139-140 Access Excellence, 209 Advanced Visualization System (AVS), 157, 170, 171, 286 Age and perceptual imaging, 97 and spatial skills, 101, 108, 270, 274-275 Air traffic control and controllers, 54-55, 93, 95 Alexandria Digital Library, 34-35 Algebra, 19, 91, 92, 117, 126, 130 Alpha Centauri, 62 American Forests, 180, 190 AML, 166 Andromeda Nebula, 64, 67 Animation environments, 46, 80, 105, 108, 149, 156, 157, 158, 159, 171, 182, 219, 224, 286 Anthropogeography, 88 Application program interface (API), 156, 157, 173-174 ArcCatalog, 224 ArcEditor, 222 ArcExplorer, 161, 167, 223 ArcGlobe, 224-226 Architects and architectural design, 12, 28, 40, 43, 54, 55, 95, 97, 100, 104, 141, 155, 156 ArcIMS, 222 ArcInfo, 222 ArcLessons, 209 ArcReader, 222 ArcSDE, 222 ArcView, 156, 166-167, 173, 174, 177, 180, 185-187, 190-192, 194, 196-198, 200, 201, 202, 204, 209, 222-226, 290, 291 ArcView GIS, 166, 184, 188, 222, 226 ArcVoyager, 167, 184, 185-187, 190, 191, 223, 291 Assembly instructions, 50, 51 Association for Geographic Information (AGI), 289, 291 Association of American Geographers (AAG), 292 Association of Research Libraries, 215 Astronomy. See Astrophysical spatialization parsec unit, 62 Astrophysical spatialization absolute magnitude, 62-63, 64, 66 beyond solar system, 60-67, 68 Copernican model, 59, 60 distance scales, 57, 60, 64, 65, 67-68 Earth shape and size, 57-58, 65, 67 epicycles, 59, 61 expertise in, 55, 57-58 frames of reference, 57-58, 59 geocentric theory, 60 heliocentric theory, 60, 61 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, 62-64 Hubble constant and, 64-65, 68 main sequence, 63, 64 measurements, 56, 58, 60-67 parallax concept, 60, 62, 64 pattern recognition, 56 period-luminosity diagram, 64, 66 primitives, 56, 57 Ptolemaic universe, 59, 60, 61 role of, 67-68, 94 solar system, 59, 67 spectroscopic parallaxes, 64 standard candle, 64 time dimension, 56, 57, 59 universe structure and evolution, 56-57, 64, 68 Atlas GIS, 167 Atmospheric physics/physicists, 80, 81

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Learning To Think Spatially AutoCAD, 156, 285 Autodesk Map, 167 Avenue, 166, 191, 192 B Barrington Middle School (Rhode Island), 180 Batik SVG Toolkit (BGRG), 286 Berkeley Geo-Research Group, 290 Bessel, Friedrich, 62 Big Bang theory, 64 Bishop Dunne Catholic School (Texas), 212 Botany/botanists, 53, 69, 209, 291 Brahe, Tycho, 60, 62, 67 Bruner, Jerome, 11-12, 16, 20, 150, 176, 237, 270-271 Bunge, William, 93 C California State University, San Bernardino, 291, 292 Car safety seat (CSS) installation, 49-50 Cartesian coordinate system, 3, 12, 27, 149, 272 Cartographic modeling, 27, 169-171, 173 Cartography, 83, 113, 156, 222, 287, 288 Center for Image Processing in Education (CIPE), 290 Central place theory, 56, 88-93 Cepheid variables, 64, 66, 67 Charlottesville Education Summit, 111 Chemistry, 27, 43, 181 Chess players, 96, 97 Chorology, 88 Christaller, Walter, 48, 49, 56, 88-93, 95 CITYgreen, 180-181, 190 Cognition/cognitive development, 270, 271 environmental, 26, 29 geographic, 287, 289 maps/mapping, 26, 27, 29, 142 skills, 12, 81. See also Spatial skills and abilities about space, 30 in space, 30 with space, 30 spatial tool kit, 27 Collaborative Visualization Project (CoVIS), 290 Color identifying and classifying objects by, 70 recognition and evaluation, 41, 42, 43, 53, 56, 138 representations, 16, 52, 80, 104, 105, 141, 143, 149, 169, 170, 171, 180-181 Columbia University, 83 Communication, in mathematics, 116, 117 Community Atlas project, 210, 291 Community Geography: GIS in Action, 179, 209 Community Mapping Program, 291 Community projects with GIS crime reduction, 179, 212 pollution hazard mapping, 181, 213 vegetation mapping and analysis, 180-181, 190 water quality monitoring, 179, 180, 212-213 Computer-assisted design (CAD) systems, 12, 19, 20, 141, 155, 156, 158, 185, 290 Concept graphing tools, 32, 157, 286 Concept maps/mapping, 19, 30, 156, 157, 159, 282 Concepts for spatial thinking, 18-19, 26, 29-31, 32, 33 Coordinate systems 3D, 151 ability to use, 276 abstract, 139-140 Cartesian, 3, 12, 27, 149, 272 Earth-anchored conceptual, 69, 77-79, 160 geometry standard, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123 latitude-longitude, 37, 38, 148, 149, 162, 168 local, 38 polar, 3, 12, 123 raster data, 160, 223 rotating, 123 specific, 149 spheres, 123 State Plane Coordinate System, 148, 149, 183 temporal, 171 transformations, 149, 173 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), 149, 183 vector models, 70, 160, 223 Copernicus, 59 Corel Draw, 285 Coriolis effect, 123 Crescent School (Ontario), 213 Crick, Francis, 1-3, 55 Crime monitoring, 179, 212 Crystallography/crystallographers, 69, 70, 72, 103 Curriculum. See K-12 curriculum Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, 165 D Data analysis and probability, 116, 117, 156 attribute, 162, 163 collection, 14, 156 combining spatial and nonspatial data, 88 correction procedures, 55, 171 extrapolation and interpolation, 55, 86-87 generalization, 55 geometric, 162 GIS characteristics, 159-162, 171, 173, 175, 217 management, 13, 16, 30, 32, 34-35, 55, 76-77, 111, 156, 177, 223, 224 mining, 34, 111 models, 160-161, 173, 175, 183, 223 nonspatial, 88, 168-169 pixel, 32, 175 quality and quantity, 102, 171 raster, 32, 156, 160, 161, 173, 183, 223 retrieval, 34

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Learning To Think Spatially space for interpreting, 28 spatialization of, 6, 31-33, 34, 35, 111, 148-149, 156, 157, 168-169, 182 vector, 160, 161, 173, 175, 223 visualization, 13, 16, 30, 32, 34, 76-77, 111 Data Explorer (DX), 155, 157, 170, 171, 286 DataScape, 291 Demographics economic processes integrated with, 180 geographic metaphors, 30, 33 GIS applications, 180, 237-240 workforce needs, 112 Developmental theories, 270-271 Developmentally appropriate education, 270 Diagrams, 19 animated vs. still, 46 central place, 89, 91, 93 devices that focus attention, 46, 47, 102, 177 DNA structure, 2 equal-area projection, 70, 71 flow, 45, 46 GIS output, 169, 189 Hertzsprung-Russell, 62-64 hierarchical, 27, 30, 40 as instructional device, 47-48, 50, 102, 116, 138, 139, 283 mattang stick chart, 138 period-luminosity, 64-66 phase, 27, 36, 133 physiographic, 84, 86, 88 purpose of, 47 reasoning from, 41, 47, 102, 104, 284 and recall, 47, 96, 282, 283 schematic, 27, 50, 282, 283 of spatial operations, 30, 45, 47, 56, 70, 102 T-S, 82 types of, 27-28 Diatoms, 72 Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), 209, 210 Digital Quest, 209 Dimensionality, 12, 47, 102. See also Coordinate systems domain considerations, 37 frames of reference, 53-54 GIS capacity, 169 motion and, 54-55, 56, 59, 80-81 three-space, 37, 53, 54-55, 70, 80, 102, 151 transformation, 40, 149 two-space representation, 13, 16, 32, 37, 53, 70, 76-77, 102, 121, 169 Directionality, 37, 43, 45, 58 Director, 157, 171, 182, 286 Distance, 46, 47, 82 astronomical scales, 57, 60, 64, 65, 67-68 as measure of time, 81-82 Distortions, 40, 41, 45, 52, 72-73 DNA structure, 1-3, 55, 103 Drawing inferences. See also Problem solving; Reasoning expertise in, 47, 53, 72, 86, 88, 102, 104 from shapes, 72-76, 77 from size, 57-58, 74, 90, 91, 92 E Earth science competency of students, 114 curriculum, 123, 291 education standards, 119-120, 123, 129 GIS software, 215 Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), 215 Earth System Science Internet Project (ESSIP), 207 Earthviewer, 171, 172 Eastern Michigan University, 291 Echo sounders and echograms, 84, 86-87 Education Applications of GIS (EdGIS) conference, 290, 291, 292 Education reform, 12, 111-112 recommendations, 131, 133-134 Educational challenges committee position statement, 7-8, 233-234 concepts for spatial thinking, 18-19 curriculum design, 134 resource-related, 103, 110, 190 support tools, 7-10, 19-20, 144-145, 233-235 Educational software collaborative model, 215 commercial model, 214-215 customization, 174, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190-192, 218-219, 293-297 Earth Science, 215 geometry, 168, 169, 173, 183 GIS, 164-165, 166, 167-168, 173, 178-179, 184-185, 214-216, 220, 285; see also individual products market, 204-205, 232 open vs. closed architecture, 188-189, 215 redesign challenges, 214-216, 220 resources, 285-286 Seasonal Differences module, 293-297 Einstein, Albert, 45, 95 Electronic circuit design, 95 Embedded figures test, 26 Emergent phenomena, 104 Encarta, 184 Environmental and Spatial Technology (EAST) initiative, 179, 290 Environmental cognition, 26, 29 Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), 19, 166, 167, 177, 184, 185, 186, 188, 190-191, 200, 201, 206, 208, 209, 210-211, 215, 220, 223, 224, 285, 290, 291-292 Epicycles, 59, 61 Epidemiology, 12, 55 arsenic in drinking water, 13 Snow’s cholera maps, 13, 14-15

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Learning To Think Spatially ER Mapper, 285 Eratosthenes of Cyrene, 57-58, 67 Erdas, 156, 285 Etak, 139-140 Everyday life GIS in, 158-159 IT applications, 111 spatial thinking in, 12, 30, 42, 43, 49-52 Ewing, Maurice, 86 Expertise in spatial thinking acquisition of knowledge, 95, 100-101, 103-104, 107 age and, 108 challenges in developing, 103-104 chess example, 96, 97 cognitive processes, 98-100, 107 combining spatial and nonspatial data, 88 differences in, 95-103 domain-specific, 40, 53-54, 55, 67-68, 94, 95, 96, 101, 104, 108 expertise in creating and understanding, 47, 87-88, 95-96, 101, 104 fostering, 107-108 inference and intuition, 47, 53, 72, 86, 88 intelligence and, 95, 96 memory and recall, 88, 95, 96-98 nature of, 95-96 novices compared, 46-47, 54, 55, 56, 70, 71, 75, 77, 79, 80, 93, 101 pattern recognition, 42, 54, 87 projects for, 104-105 role of, 46-47, 93, 101-102 in science, 55, 56, 57-58, 68, 69-70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78-80, 83-88, 93 transformations, 44 visualization, 76-77, 80-81, 84, 88, 103 at work, 52-53 Explore Your World, 209 Extending Scientific Inquiry Through Collaborative Geographic Information Systems, 208, 292 F Federation of GIS Education Partners, 215, 220 Flash, 157, 171, 182, 286 Foraminifera, 72, 74, 75 Fractal Technologies, 156, 285 Frames of reference, 37, 41, 42, 44, 45. See also Coordinate systems abstract, 139-140 astrophysical, 57-58, 59 dimensionality, 53-54 replotting, 149 rotating, 123, 129 FreeHand, 157, 285 Function concept, 19 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), 19 G GenScope project, 105 Geocentric theory, 60 Geodesy, 57, 290 Geographic information systems (GIS) academic model, 214, 215 accessibility to all learners, 186-190, 192 administrative and institutional support, 202-203 analytical capabilities, 171, 173-174, 177, 190, 210 animation environment, 171, 182, 219, 224 appeal to students, 182, 219 applications, 164, 166, 180 appropriateness to student needs, 173, 179, 183-192, 205, 218 assessment as an educational support system, 176, 182-183, 191-192, 203, 213-214, 217-225 buffer analysis, 175 capabilities, 156-159, 165, 167-176 community support, 179-182, 190, 212-213, 218, 220 compatibility issues, 200 competitions, 210-212, 292 component-based or open system architecture, 184 components, 160 computing environment in schools and, 200-203 coordinate system, 171 curriculum support, 208-212, 213, 218, 220, 237-240 customizability, 174, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190-192, 218-219, 224, 293-297 data characteristics, 159-162, 171, 173, 175, 217 data management, 177, 223, 224 design criteria, 176-203, 215, 218-219 difficulties in using, 193-200 educational context, 192-203 for English language learners, 189-190 in everyday life, 158-159 expert users, 164, 183, 219 flexibility in contexts and modes of use, 192-193 and GPS, 39, 156, 212 graphic variables, 170 implementation in schools, 193-214, 219-220 infrastructure demands, 200-203, 219 inquiry-based learning with, 176-177, 182-183, 210 instructional support, 204, 206-208, 213, 214, 222 Internet access, 202, 204 K-12 software, 164-165, 166, 167-168, 173, 178-179, 184-185; see also individual products logistical support, 205-206, 213, 214, 219 low-tech learning tools, 205 material support for, 179, 204-205, 213, 219 media support, 169, 171 meeting educational goals, 176-183 modeling capabilities, 169-171, 173, 175, 190 nature and functions, 158-164 and navigation, 38-39, 158 nongeographic spaces, 168 novice users, 184, 185-187, 193-200, 219 operational functions, 18, 40, 158, 162-163, 168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 187, 205, 207, 218

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Learning To Think Spatially overlay (thematic layers) analysis, 162-163, 175, 180-181, 193-195 personal guidance system, 38-39 problem solving in real-world contexts, 177-179, 218 proximity analysis, 175 queries, 163, 196-197 recommendations, 9-10, 234-235 representations, 118-119, 170-171 resource constraints in schools, 192-199 role in spatial thinking, 15, 18, 19 size transformations, 169, 170, 171-173, 175, 183-184, 198-199, 225 spatialization capacity, 168-169, 176, 182 standards-based education and, 118-119, 200, 212, 214 status as support system, 164-165, 220-221 teacher-related issues, 189-190, 193, 200-201, 204, 206-208, 214, 219-220 technological evolution, 222-226 time line for introduction into K-12 education, 289-292 time modeling, 171 transfer of learning across domains, 179-182, 218 transformation capacity, 158-159, 169, 170, 171-173, 174, 175, 177, 183-184, 198-199, 218, 225 user interfaces, 9, 171, 173, 174, 177, 182, 184, 185, 188-189, 196-197, 219, 224 virtual applications, 171, 188-189, 237, 291 visualization capacity, 9, 169-171, 176, 177, 210, 214, 217-218, 234 for visually impaired learners, 188-189 workplace applications, 168 Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), 167, 215 Geography active learning, 11-12 central place theory, 56, 88-93 defined, 116 education standards, 116 expertise in, 55, 56 information technology and, 110 as rational sets of induction, 11 spatial thinking in, 55, 56, 116 Geography Network, 209, 211 Geolocation systems, 111. See also Global positioning system Geology/geologists, 43 field, 76, 79-80 structural, 69, 70, 72 GeoMedia, 167, 179 Geometry activities, 118 computational, 288 coordinate, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 130, 132 curriculum, 18, 118, 131 education standards, 114, 115, 116-118, 120-122, 123, 124-125, 130 Euclidean, 123 everyday applications, 142 geography integrated with, 58 GIS software, 168, 169, 173, 183 international student rankings, 114 projective, 274 science content linked to, 123, 124, 125, 129, 130 spatial thinking applied in, 19, 36, 37, 81, 92, 94, 115, 123, 126, 131 transformational, 114, 117, 118, 125, 130 Geomorphology/geomorphologists, 61, 74, 77, 86, 87 Geophysicists, 80 Georeferencing, 37, 143, 159, 180 Geoscience analytical systems, 156, 158, 285 ascribing meaning to shapes, 72-76, 77 crystal planes of symmetry, 69, 70 describing position and orientation, 77-79 describing shapes, 69-70 equal-area projection diagrams, 70, 71 expert spatial thinking in, 55, 56, 57-58, 68, 69-70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78-80, 83-88, 101 identifying/classifying objects, 70-72 Miller indices, 70 motion in 3D space, 80-81 novice learning, 56, 70, 71, 75, 77, 79, 80, 93, 101 pattern recognition, 76, 78 processes of spatial thinking, 82-83 recall of object location and appearance, 79-80 representations for nonspatial parameters, 82 sedimentary folding, 69, 70 spatial operations, 68-83 time progression, 81-82 topographic maps, 79 visualization of structures, 76-77, 78, 80-81, 95 Geospatial technology defined, 112-113 high-tech systems, 156, 158, 179 market characteristics, 112 support for, 179 Geospatial Technology Competency Model, 112-113 GeoVISTA Studio, 188 Geovisualization, 169 Girasek, Deborah, 49-50 GIS Day, 206, 291 GIScience, 159, 287-288, 291 Gladwin, Thomas, 137 Global positioning system (GPS), 55 data collection, 156 GIS and, 39, 156, 212 hand-held receiver, 16 Location Based Services (LBS), 111 mobile devices linked to, 110, 111 ocean navigation, 77, 78, 84, 136, 137, 141 personal guidance system, 38-39 tracking, 111, 143 water quality monitoring, 15, 16, 212-213 GLOBE, 193 Gradmann, Robert, 90 Graphics generators, 157, 159, 179 Graphing calculators, 19 Gravitational theory, 59 Greenbriar High School (Arkansas), 179

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Learning To Think Spatially H Haptic mice, 188 Haptic Soundscapes Project, 189 Heezen, Bruce, 83-86, 87-88 Heliocentric theory, 60, 61 Hertzsprung, Edward, 62 Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, 62-64 Hettner, Alfred, 88 High-stakes testing, 200, 212 Hubble constant, 64-65, 68 Hubble, Edwin, 64, 67, 68 Human Genome Project, 19 Humboldt, Alexander von, 88 Hutton, James, 72 I Idrisi, 19, 156, 167, 200, 201, 204, 208, 214, 285 IHMC Concept Map, 286 IKONOS satellite, 16 Imagine, 156 Inferences. See Drawing inference Information geographic metaphor, 30, 33 nonvisual processing, 38-39 visualization systems, 156, 157, 159, 170, 171, 286 Information technology (IT). See also Geospatial technology; Support systems and tools; Virtual world intersection with space, 111 need for skilled thinkers, 110-111 skill building with GIS, 182 Inspiration, 286 Instruction. See Learning; Teaching spatial thinking Intellectual space, 28, 30, 31, 32, 48 Intelligence measurement and testing, 26 Interfaces. See User interfaces Intergraph, 19, 179, 207-208, 215 IRIS Explorer, 286 Isotropic plane, 92 J James Madison University, 291 JASON project, 289 K K-12 curriculum, 13. See also Teaching competitions, 210-212, 292 design challenges, 134 GIS resources, 105, 121, 124-125, 126, 151, 209-210, 293-297 infusion of spatial thinking across, 5, 6, 101, 105-107, 109, 120, 131, 133-134, 147, 176, 179-181, 182, 183, 218, 231 interpreting representations, 47-48, 102 supports, 104-105, 151 transfer of spatial thinking across subjects, 101, 105-107 Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN), 193, 209, 290 Kekulé, Friedrich, 95 Kepler, Johannes, 59, 60, 67 Keyhole Inc. Images, 171 Knowledge. See Spatial knowledge L Lake Ontario Keeper, 213 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 84 Learning. See also Expertise in spatial thinking; K-12 curriculum; Transfer of learning assimilation and accommodation, 270 cognitive development and, 270 collaborative projects, 192-193, 202 developmental theories and, 270-271 disabilities, 190 general principles, 106 inquiry-based, 133-134, 140, 145, 176-177, 182-183, 207, 210, 237-240 interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary, 181-182, 210 to learn, 101 multiple examples and, 106, 107 pattern, 99, 100 perceptual processes, 97-98, 100 performance-based environments, 179 practice and, 98-100, 103, 106, 107 problem-based, 207, 212 productivity, 106 representations, 281-282 rote, 144-145 spiral curriculum, 270-271 Leavitt, Henrietta, 64, 66 Life spaces, 12, 28, 30, 31, 48 Literacy. See also Spatial literacy defined, 4, 17, 49 verbal, 50 Location Based Services (LBS), 111 Location theory, 88-93 Logo software, 126 Looking at the Environment (LATE) program, 209, 210 M Mac GIS, 167 Macaulay, David, 28, 29 Magic, 174 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 19, 27 Malone, Lyn, 237-240 MapExtreme, 200 MapInfo, 156, 167, 173, 174, 200, 204, 285 Maple, 156, 285 Mapping Our City project, 191, 208

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Learning To Think Spatially Mapping Our World: GIS Lessons for Educators, 189-191, 209, 222 Mapping System, 200 MapQuest, 111, 155, 183-184 Maps/mapping Albers Equal Area, 173 cartographic, 27, 28, 33, 36, 57, 83, 85, 142, 145, 149, 156, 162, 169, 170, 171, 173, 288 chloropleth or isopleth, 188-189 cognitive, 26, 27, 29, 142 concept, 19, 30, 32, 156, 157, 159, 282, 286 contour, 84, 85, 88 digital elevation models, 86 environmental, 179, 180-181, 190, 212-213 geological, 79, 80 Internet structure, 168-169 mental, 52 modified Mercator projections, 27, 141, 145, 146, 173 paper-and-pencil activities, 133 reading and interpreting, 33, 36, 79, 104, 142 satellite-based systems, 84 seafloor, 56, 76-78, 83-88 self-organizing, 33 stellar, 64, 65 swath-mapping, 84 topographic, 79 weather, 104, 105, 223 web-based interactive, 223 Maptek, 285 Maptitude, 167 Marine geochemists, 80 Mathematica, 156, 285 Mathematical thinking, 25, 144 Mathematics. See also Algebra; Geometry communication in, 116, 117 connections among ideas, 118 education standards, 114, 115-119 international comparison of student competencies, 113-114 representations in, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 132 spatial concepts, 18 support tools, 19, 104, 118-119, 136, 141, 142, 144, 156, 159, 285 Matlab, 285 Measurement, mathematics standard, 117 Memory and recall, 11 chunking information, 97 classic model of, 97-98 diagrams as aid to, 47, 96, 282, 283 domain specificity, 100 and expertise, 88, 95, 96-98 learning and encoding new information, 281-282 long-term, 97, 142 method of loci, 281 mnemonic techniques, 281 overlearning and, 97 pattern recognition, 27, 40, 41, 42, 44, 53-54, 68, 76, 78, 82, 86, 96, 100, 276 peg word system, 281-282 reinstatement and generation techniques, 282-283 representations and, 45, 46, 47, 97, 98, 102, 107, 281-283 sensory storage, 97 sex differences, 277 structural differentiation, 98 support systems, 144 verbal materials, 97, 98, 282 working (short-term), 46, 97, 98, 100, 101, 107, 140-141 Mental imagery/practice, 43, 44, 55 Mental rotation, 18, 26, 27, 31, 40, 43, 44, 47, 52, 83, 98, 99-102, 107, 123, 130, 133, 150, 266, 267, 268, 274, 275, 276-277, 280 Meta-cognitive knowledge, 100, 106 Metaphors in spatial thinking, 12, 25, 34, 41, 93, 94 in everyday life, 45 geographic, 30, 33 graphics, 36 overlay integration, 180 root, 36, 56, 110 in science, 82, 83 “space” used for nonspatial parameters, 82 for virtual-world access, 110-111, 184 Meteorology, 27, 98, 103 Mfworks, 167 Micromine, 156, 285 MicroStation, 156, 285 Mineralogy/mineralogists, 69, 70-71, 76 Missouri Botanical Garden, 209, 291 Modified Mercator projection, 27 Motion/movement, 149, 170, 225, 271, 272 and angular estimation, 78 astrophysical, 56, 59, 61, 62, 68 describing, 129 directionality, 43, 45, 50 through geospaces, 82 parallactic, 62 representations, 43, 45 rotating frames of reference, 123, 129 through 3-D space, 80-81 in 3-D space-time, 54-55, 56, 59, 80-81 tracking, 38-39 and transformations, 102 visualization, 47, 69, 80-81 Multidimensional scaling (MDS), 12, 27, 111 Multiscalar analysis, 56 My Community, Our Earth: Geographic Learning for Sustainable Development, 210, 212, 292 My World, 167 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 112, 215 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 113 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 215

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Learning To Think Spatially National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 113-114, 207 National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), 208, 289, 290 National Education Goals, 111 National Education Standards coupling between mathematics and science, 120-131 geography, 116 goals, 114-115 mathematics, 114-119 organization, 115 role of spatial thinking in, 6-7, 114-115, 208-209, 232 science, 114-115, 119-120 National Geographic Alliance, 208, 289 National Geographic Society (NGS), 290 National Geography Standards, 116, 165 National Science Education Standards, 165 categories, 115 content standards, 115, 119-120 mathematics standards linked to, 120-131 National Science Foundation (NSF), 208, 289, 290, 291 Navigation, 30, 94 angular estimations, 78-79 buffers, 39 celestial, 84, 87, 138, 140 computer programs, 38-39, 122 dead reckoning, 78-79, 84, 87, 138, 139 GIS technology, 158 GPS, 78, 84, 136 homing vector/path integration procedure, 142 knowledge of physical environment and, 138 landmarks, 38, 52, 53, 94, 142, 143, 213, 272, 277 map reading, 79 Mattang stick chart, 138 neurophysiology and, 52 oceanographic techniques, 77-79, 84, 87, 135-140, 141 personal guidance systems, 38-39 “piloting” system, 142 Puluwatan islanders, 135-140 sex differences in, 142 size evaluation and, 42 vehicle navigation systems, 111, 135-136, 142-143 virtual, 110, 193, 206, 207, 224 workplace networks, 53 Networks, 123 Neural networks, 33 Newton, Isaac, 59 No Child Left Behind Act, 114, 134, 186-188 Northwestern University, 290 Numbers and operations, 116, 117, 119 O Objects ascribing meaning to shapes, 72-76 concrete vs. abstract, 27 defined, 36-37 describing shapes, 69-70 distinguishing figures from ground, 41-42 embedded, 26, 44 identifying and classifying, 70-71 motion visualization, 80-81 position and orientation, 77-79 properties, 37-38 recall of, 40, 41-42, 44, 79-80 recognizing shapes or patterns, 76 remembering location and appearance, 79-80 shape change processes, 81 visualizing from 1D or 2D data, 76-77 Oceanography. See Physical oceanography/oceanographers Onstar System, 142 Operations. See Spatial operations Orientation. See Mental rotation; Spatial orientation Orton Family Foundation, 291 P Paleontology/paleontologists, 70-71, 72, 76 Paper folding test, 26, 81 Parallax concept, 60, 62, 64 Patterns, 5, 19, 32, 33 description and analysis, 47, 91, 92, 150 in epidemiology, 13, 14-15, 16 with GIS, 18 noisy background, 76, 78, 86, 92 operations, 40, 41, 76 perceptual learning of, 100 process modeling, 150 random vs. systematic, 40 recognition, 27, 40, 41, 42, 44, 53-54, 68, 76, 78, 82, 86, 96, 100, 276 transformation of, 100 Pennsylvania State University, 290 Period-luminosity diagram, 64, 66 Personal Brain, 286 Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), 111 Personal guidance systems (PGSs), 38-39 Perspective, 3, 12, 26, 27, 28, 31, 44, 47, 98, 100, 102, 118, 123-124, 131, 141, 143, 149, 225, 282. See also Frames of reference Petrology/petrologists, 69, 70-71, 82 Philosophy, 101 Photogrammetry, 287, 288 Photoshop, 19, 157, 285 Physical oceanography/oceanographers conductivity-temperature-depth profiles, 76 seafloor mapping, 56, 76-77 visualization of structures, 76-77, 80 Physical science/physics achievement of U.S. students, 114 curriculum, 18, 27, 47, 133 education standards, 114, 115, 119, 123, 124, 127-128 spatial concepts, 12, 18 spatial representations, 47, 57, 102 and spatial visualization, 76

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Learning To Think Spatially Physical space/environment, 28, 29-30, 31-32, 48, 118, 138, 177, 268, 271-272 Physiographic diagrams, 84, 86, 88 Piedmont Research Institute, 291 Pixel data, 32, 175 Plate tectonics, 86, 100 Point concept, 19 Pollution hazard mapping, 181, 213 Position of objects. See Spatial orientation Precision data recorders (PDRs), 84 Pressure-temperature space, 82 Primitives, 25, 36-37, 40, 56, 57, 86 Principles and Standards for School Mathematics content standards, 115 expectations for students, 115, 117-118 and GIS support, 118-119 process standards, 115 science standards linked to, 120-131 spatial thinking and, 115-119 Problem solving, 12, 13, 27-28, 48, 53 age and sex differences, 52 Buddhist monk problem, 283 car safety seat installation, 49-50 in everyday life, 49-52 knock-out tournament problem, 283-284 mathematics standard, 117, 120 representations and, 27, 107, 108, 283-284 in science, 83-88 Production graphics environments, 156, 157, 159, 285 Psychometric testing, 273 Ptolemaic universe, 59, 60, 61 Ptolemy, Claudius, 59 R Radiologists and radiology, 53, 54, 95, 97, 98 Raster data models, 32, 156, 160, 161, 173, 183, 223 Ratzel, Friedrich, 88 Reading, 50 Reasoning. See also Drawing inferences; Problem solving ascribing meaning from shapes, 72-76 from diagrams, 41, 47, 102, 104, 284 examples, 3, 12-13 from first principles, 75 mathematics standard, 117, 120, 121 problem solving, 121 processes, 28, 29, 40, 44, 45-46 scientific, 44 technology and, 126 Recall. See Memory and recall Recommendations GIS, 9-10, 234-235 spatial literacy goals, 7, 232-233 timetable for implementing, 236 Red River High School (North Dakota), 212-213 Relativity theory, 45, 95 Remote-sensing applications and imagery, 32, 42, 113, 149, 156, 158, 162, 183, 200, 285, 288, 290 Representations. See Spatial representations Ritter, Carl, 88 Rodgers, John, 79 Russell, Henry Norris, 62 Russell Sage Foundation, 112 S SAGUARO Project, 209 Satellite imaging, 16 Scale and scalar relations, 92. See also Size multidimensional, 12, 27, 111 progression, 31 properties, 37 terminal values (bounds), 37 transformation, 27, 149 Schematization, 45, 46 Science. See also Astrophysical spatialization; Geoscience concepts of spatial thinking, 19 forms of thinking in, 12 international comparison of student competencies, 113-114 IT applications, 111 spatial thinking in, 27, 42, 43, 55-56 Seafloor mapping, 56, 76-78, 83-88 sediment deposition patterns, 81, 84 spreading, 84, 86, 103 Secondary Education Project (SEP), 290 Secretary of Labor Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), 111-112 Sedimentology/sedimentologists, 69, 72-73, 74, 76, 81, 82 Sex differences developmental emergence, 277 memory for spatial locations, 277 in navigation, 142 origins of, 277-280 problem solving, 52 in spatial performance, 269, 273, 276-277 Shapes. See also Size; Spatial orientation ascribing meaning to, 72-76, 77 change processes, 81 describing, 69-70 identifying and classifying, 70-72 recognizing, 76 Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) statistic, 50 Sims Superstars, 169 69 Cygni, 62 Size comparison, 42 evaluation, 41, 42, 43, 45, 52, 53, 189 GIS modeling, 169, 170, 171, 172, 175, 225 inferences from, 57-58, 74, 90, 91, 92 scaling, 47, 56, 92 transformation, 44, 149, 169, 170, 171-173, 175, 183-184, 198-199, 225 zooming, 198-199 Small Magellanic Cloud, 64, 66

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Learning To Think Spatially Smallworld, 174 Smith, William, 79-80 Snow, John, 13, 14-15, 16 Software. See Educational software; individual packages Space as basis for spatial thinking, 36-40 economic model of, 91-92 examples, 12 forms of thinking about, 25-27 as framework for understanding, 28-33 GIS context, 168 Internet intersection with, 111 for interpreting data, 28 languages of, 37, 40 objective vs. subjective, 27 properties, 12 SPACESTARS program, 209-210 Spatial ability. See Expertise in spatial thinking; Spatial skills and abilities Spatial agnosia, 94 Spatial amnesia, 94 Spatial analysis, 88-93, 158-159 Spatial attitude, 27 Spatial cognition, 26, 30, 272 Spatial development age-linked, 271-272 theoretical approached, 272-273 Spatial knowledge, 18-19, 27 domains, 12 Spatial location, 40, 45 Spatial literacy components, 16-20 fostering, 3-4, 12, 15-20, 89-90, 105 and problem solving, 49 student characteristics, 4, 20 Spatial operations, 25 ability to perform, 26 analytical, 160 ascribing meaning to shapes, 72-76, 77 cognitive, 5, 12, 230 describing shapes, 69-70 diagrams of, 30, 45, 47, 56, 70, 102 distortions in patterns, 40, 41, 45, 52, 72-73 encoding, 41-48, 281-282 in everyday life, 52 externalization, 28 in geoscience, 68-83 GIS, 18, 40, 158, 162-163, 168, 171, 173, 174, 177, 187, 205, 207, 218 identifying/classifying shapes, 69-72 learning, 49 mental, 43, 46, 101 metaphors, 36 motion of objects through space, 80-81 on nonspatial parameters, 79 opacity-transparency issue, 144 ordering, 52 pattern recognition, 40, 76, 78 position/orientation of objects, 37, 77-79 problem solving, 12 remembering location and appearance, 79-80 research needs, 7, 15, 232 scaling, 37, 40 sensory modality and, 26 shape-changing processes, 79 spatial location and, 40 support systems, 8, 134, 140, 141, 148, 150, 158, 233 time factor, 79-80 transformations, 36, 37-38, 41 visualization, 76-77, 80-81 Spatial orientation, 26, 52. See also Coordinate systems changing, 44 describing, 77-79 determining, 42-43 inferring meaning from, 74 of natural objects, 74, 77-79 real-world relative to conceptual coordinate system, 77-79 Spatial perception, 26, 29, 276, 277 Spatial representations, 4, 5, 7, 14, 15, 17, 20, 26, 40, 57. See also Diagrams in spatial thinking; Maps/mapping; Metaphors animated, 46, 80, 105, 149 classes and forms, 149 color, 16, 52, 80, 104, 105, 141, 143, 149, 169, 170, 171, 180-181 of concepts in space, 30 curriculum, 47-48, 102 decomposition of, 41 digital, 34, 86 dimensionality, 13, 16, 32, 37, 53, 70, 76-77, 102 effectiveness, 46, 80, 103 encoding processes, 41-48 in everyday life, 32, 52 examples, 3, 12, 19, 150 external, 25, 27-28, 46, 102 GIS support, 118-119 imaging technologies, 19 interference with problem solving, 283 internal (mental) forms, 25, 27-28, 41, 102 interpreting, 47-48, 102 and learning and encoding new information, 107, 108, 282-282 limitations of, 104 maps and mapping, 33-34, 36 mathematics, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 132 and memory performance, 45, 46, 47, 97, 98, 102, 107, 281-283 of movement/motion, 43, 45 for nonspatial parameters, 82 and orientation, 42-43 physiographic diagrams, 84, 86 practice in creating and transforming, 98-100, 101, 108 in problem solving, 27, 107, 108, 283-284 properties of, 41-42 reasoning with, 47, 87-88, 95-96, 104 relations between dynamic entities, 43

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Learning To Think Spatially relations between static entities, 42-43 role of, 46 science, 47, 57, 102 sensory modalities, 36, 149 structure of classifications, 40 support system capabilities, 149 systems of, 12 and transfer of learning, 101, 281-284 transformations of, 41, 43-45, 98, 274-275 on 2-D space, 30, 33-34, 37, 70, 121, 169 virtual auditory system, 39 Spatial skills and abilities, 19-20. See also Spatial development angular estimations, 78-79 categories, 26 chronological age and, 101, 270, 274-275 defined, 26 differences among learners, 266-268, 269 Euclidean, 70, 77 gender differences, 268, 269 group differences in performance, 267, 268-269 intuition, 75, 77, 84 measurement, 274-275 memory, 80 observational skills, 91 organizational ability, 80, 91, 92 sex differences in performance, 269, 273, 276-280 Spatial structures, 25, 36, 37, 95 analysis, 149, 150 extracting, 47, 102 relationships between, 106-107 Spatial thinking and acting approaches to, 25-28 catalog of elements, 41 committee position statement, 5-7, 230-232 concepts, 18-19, 26, 40, 29-31, 32, 33, 40 contexts for, 29-31, 32, 33 defined, 33 developmentally appropriate education, 270-273 DNA structure as example of, 1-3 educational challenges, 18-19 in everyday life, 12, 49-52, 93, 94 functions of, 3, 5-7, 33, 36 primitives, 36-37, 40 as problem solving, 27-28 processes, 3, 16, 26, 28, 40-48, 82-83, 93; see also Spatialization in science, 14-15, 16-17, 55-93, 94 space as basis for, 3, 36-40 value of studying differences in, 209 at work, 12, 52-55, 93, 94 Spatial visualization. See also Concept maps/mapping age and, 97 classroom activities, 121, 124-125, 126 content standards, 123, 125 courses, 210 data management, 13, 16, 30, 32, 34, 76-77, 111 defined, 118 design issues, 46 DNA molecule, 3 effectiveness of, 55 expertise, 76-77, 80-81, 84, 88, 96-97, 103 GIS capacity, 9, 169-171, 176, 214, 217-218, 234 information exploration, 156, 157, 158-159, 169, 171, 185, 286 in mathematics, 114, 117, 118, 120, 123, 156 measurement, 26, 81, 276-277 motion of objects through 3D space, 80-81 multidimensional scaling, 12, 27, 111 negative spaces, 81 nonspatial input, 82, 97 problem solving with, 117, 120-126, 131, 133, 276-277 process, 60-61 and recall skills, 282 Science magazine wards, 103 scientific, 3, 36, 46, 55, 56, 73-77, 80 sex differences, 277 of shape changes, 81 skill development in learners, 79, 122-123 spatialization and, 111 in statistical analysis, 155, 156 support systems, 8, 135, 143, 155, 156, 158-159, 169, 217-218, 233, 286 of 3-D objects from 1-D or 2-D data, 13, 16, 32, 37, 53, 76-77, 78, 79, 131 virtual reality systems, 36 for visually impaired people, 36, 188-189 Spatialization, 25, 41. See also Astrophysical spatialization ability, 26, 31 in communications, 116 concept graphing tools, 157 of data, 6, 31-33, 34, 35, 111, 148-149, 156, 157, 168-169, 182 defined, 30, 168 GIS capacity for, 168-169, 176, 182 high-tech support systems, 148, 156-159 and information retrieval, 34 of mapping domains, 111 multidimensional scaling, 111 of nonspatial data, 168-169 in numbers and operations, 116 process, 31-32 software tools, 156, 157 support systems for, 8, 148, 156-159, 168-169, 182, 233 visualization and, 111 Spatialized query user interface, 35 Speech recognition software, 188 Standard candle, 64 Standards. See National Education Standards State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS), 148, 149, 183 State University of New York–Buffalo, 289 Statistical analyses, 12, 19, 82, 89-90, 91, 92, 117, 141, 149, 155, 156, 159, 175, 183, 190, 205, 273, 285, 288

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Learning To Think Spatially Statistical interaction, 279, 280 Struve, Friedrich von, 62 Support systems and tools, 13. See also Geographic information systems; other specific systems and software packages analytical capabilities, 150 appropriateness to student needs, 141, 146, 147, 151 barriers to classroom use, 179 committee position statement, 7-8, 233-234 context considerations, 147 costs of learning, 20 design criteria, 145-147, 218-219 discipline-specific, 19 educational challenges, 7-10, 19-20, 144-145, 233-235 end-means issue, 144 expert users, 141-142 functions of, 140-141, 143 high-tech, 19, 135, 136, 141, 142, 155-165, 179 implementation, 144, 151-152 instruction process, 144 in K-12 context, 150-152 limitations of, 141-145, 146, 157 low-tech, 19, 84-86, 87, 135, 136, 137-140, 141, 142, 150-151, 155 meeting education goals, 145, 147 nature of, 135-140 need for, 147-148 novice users, 144 opacity-transparency issue, 144 operations capabilities, 150 power-limitations issue, 145 representations, 149 requirements of, 148-150, 217-218 rote learning-comprehension issue, 144-145 spatialization of data, 148-149 and transfer of learning, 142, 143, 147, 176, 179-181, 182, 183 transformation capability, 149 visual, 55 visualization of results, 149 Surpac Minex, 156, 285 Surveying, 287, 288 T T-S diagrams, 82 Teachers demands on, 200-201, 212 GIS skills, 208, 219 professional development opportunities, 207-208, 222 training issues, 13, 45-46, 189-190, 202, 206-208, 219-220, 291 Teaching spatial thinking, 3-4, 26, 45-46. See also Educational challenges; K-12 curriculum diagrams as aids to, 47-48, 50, 102, 116, 138, 139, 283 examples of using GIS, 11-12, 179-181, 212-213, 237-240 facilitating GIS, 179 formal instruction in spatial ideas, 131 inquiry approach, 133-134, 140, 145 reasoning, 3, 47 reinstatement and generation techniques, 282-283 Technology, 13, 55 barriers to classroom use, 179 collaborative, 192-193 coordinators, 202 mathematics education standard, 119 Technology in Education Research Consortium (ERC), 191, 208, 290 Temperature, 82 Tetris, 100, 105 Texture, 36, 41, 42, 43, 70-71, 72, 84, 169 Tharp, Marie, 48, 56, 76-77, 79, 83-88 ThemeRiver, 157 Thinking. See also Spatial thinking and acting forms of, 12 Thought experiments, 95 Time, 40, 55 coordinate, 171 dimension, 56, 57, 59 distance in space as measure of, 81-82 geological, 81-82 leap year, 57 GIS modeling capability, 171 Topology, 36, 113, 171, 173, 272, 287 TouchGraph, 157 Transfer of learning, 52 curriculum infusion and, 5, 6, 101, 105-107, 109, 120, 134, 147, 176, 179-181, 182, 183, 231 direct application theory, 106 domain specificity, 5, 45-46, 99, 100, 105-107, 108, 109, 145, 231 education standards and, 120 far, 100, 105, 106 instruction and, 106-107, 134 mental rotation skills, 101 near, 100, 105 negative, 143 pattern recognition skills, 53, 100 practice and, 95, 99, 101, 105, 107 preparation for future learning, 106 representations and, 101, 281-284 support systems and, 142, 143, 144-145, 147, 176, 179-181, 182, 183 testing for, 106 visualization skills, 100 ways to facilitate, 46, 95, 105-107, 143, 147, 176, 179-181, 182, 183 Transformations, 3, 5, 12, 27, 230 age and skill in, 274-275 in coordinate systems, 149, 173 defined, 149 detecting embedded figures, 44 dimensionality, 40 domain specificity, 100 enacting, 43, 44-45, 47

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Learning To Think Spatially geometry standard, 114, 117, 118, 125, 130 GIS, 158-159, 169, 171-173, 174, 177, 218 learning, 102 mathematical and statistical analysis systems, 130, 156 memory and, 46, 100 mental rotation, 18, 26, 27, 31, 40, 43, 44, 47, 52, 83, 98, 99-102, 107, 123, 130, 133, 150, 266, 267, 268, 274, 275, 276-277, 280 novices vs. experts, 47, 108, 274-275 operations, 30, 37-38, 44, 59, 173 ordering, 45 orientation changes, 44, 102 of patterns, 100 perspective changes, 44 practice in, 98, 100, 101, 102, 108, 274-275 processes, 45, 98 properties of, 41 and reasoning, 45 reconfiguring parts, 44 of representations, 41, 43-45, 98, 274-275 in scale, 28, 36, 47, 56, 102 shadow projection task, 274-275 support systems for, 8, 148, 149, 150, 156, 158-159, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177, 218, 233 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 113-114 TurboCAD, 285 U Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), 149, 183 University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), 215, 287 University of Arizona, 291 University of California Santa Barbara, 38, 289 University of Kansas, 289, 292 University of Maine, 289 University of Minnesota, 207 University of Wyoming, 207 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 215 U.S. Department of Education, 113, 201, 220 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 16 U.S. Navstar, 38 U.S. Navy, 84 U.S. State Department, 292 User interfaces, 222, 224, 234 application program interface, 156, 157, 173-174, 177, 184, 188 command-line style, 177 customized, 224 for English language learners, 189-190 GIS, 9, 171, 173, 177, 178, 182, 183-184, 185, 188-189, 191-192, 193, 196-197, 214, 215, 218, 219, 222, 224 nonvisual, 188-189 pictorial, 177, 178 query, 34-35, 173, 175, 196-197 standards, 215 vehicle navigation systems, 143 virtual auditory display, 39 WIMP, 173, 174, 177 wizards, 9, 177, 184, 219 V Vector data model, 70, 160, 161, 173, 175, 223 Vega, 62 Vegetation mapping and analysis, 180-181, 190 Verbal thinking, 25-26 Video games, 100, 105, 169, 182, 188 Virtual auditory display, 39 Virtual Campus, 291 Virtual Immersion in Science Inquiry for Teachers, 291 Virtual reality systems, 27, 36, 141 Virtual world access to, 110-111; see also User interfaces displays, 39, 111, 141 GIS applications, 171, 188-189, 237, 291 teacher training, 291 for visually impaired learners, 188-189 Visual Basic, 166, 174 Visual browsing query process, 34 Visual exploration systems, 157, 159, 169, 177, 179 Visualization. See also Spatial visualization Visualizations in Science and Mathematics (VISM), 291 Visualizing Earth (VisEarth), 290 Visually impaired people, 36, 38-39, 188-189, 218 von Thunen, Johann Heinrich, 88 Vulcan, 156 W Water quality monitoring, 179, 180, 212-213 Watson, James, 1-3, 55 Wayfinding, 38-39, 94, 142. See also Navigation Weber, Alfred, 88 Wegener, Alfred, 72 Wegner, Mark, 49-50 Work force adequacy of education, 112 cognitive skills, 110-113 GIS applications, 168 international competition, 111-113 IT applications, 111 Workplace demand for knowledge workers, 110-111 spatial thinking, 12, 52-55 Workplace Investment Act of 1998, 17 World Health Organization (WHO), 16 World Resources Institute (WRI), 291 World Watcher program, 290 Z Zoologists/zoology, 69

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