normal, everyday cognitive processing; the novice-expert difference is a consequence of the degree and type of practice and experience in a domain.

Getting to work is not the only spatial task shared by different occupations. In order to operate, workers need a mental model of the structure and functioning of the institution: they need to know who to turn to for help on what task. Sometimes information is mentally represented as a spatial network, much like a rudimentary mental map of an environment. In this institutional mental space, links are tasks and nodes are people who perform tasks. Often information is explicitly represented in an organizational chart and depicted as a spatial network that must be “navigated.” Managers must decide how to allocate resources or what new projects to undertake. To do so, they consult charts and graphs of performance. Charts and graphs provide spatial representations of data, but do not in themselves provide solutions to problems. Solutions depend on making inferences from charts and graphs, projections of future sales, changes in personnel and equipment, and more.

Beyond generic problem-solving similarities, many jobs require the use of specific spatial skills. Recognition of complex patterns is required in many professions. Think of the time you saw an X-ray image in a doctor’s office. You could probably pick out bones but little else. In the clouds that X-rays resemble, highly trained radiologists can discern tumors, blood clots, and faulty valves. Recognizing these patterns takes years of training and is by no means perfect (see Ericsson, 1996, for an overview of the literature on expertise; see the November 2003 issue of the Educational Researcher on expertise in the context of education).

Recognition skill does not transfer to other domains. Skilled radiologists are no better than novices at recognizing skin diseases that dermatologists are expert in diagnosing or plant diseases that botanists excel at discerning. Expertise in pattern recognition is domain specific. It requires discerning features characteristic of specific sensory categories. Typically, domain expertise in pattern recognition also requires learning the proper configurations of distinctive features. The practice that polishes this skill requires categorizing many examples of related and different phenomena and getting feedback on the categorization process. Simply seeing examples is not sufficient; to become expert, people must learn to differentiate and discriminate one category from another (Nickerson and Adams, 1979). A classroom demonstration illustrates that seeing, however frequent, is insufficient to ensure learning critical features. Students are asked to name what is shown on both sides of a penny or whether their (analog) watch dial has lines or numbers to mark minutes. Few succeed at the penny task, and many are surprisingly poor at the watch task. Although we “look” at pennies and watches frequently, often many times a day, we do not have to distinguish one penny or watch face from another (Nickerson and Adams, 1979). We do, however, need to distinguish a penny from a nickel or dime, and we do so based on color or shape or size without paying attention to the face of the coin. In watches, we only consult the lengths of hands and their angles. When we need to make fine distinctions, such as those required to differentiating types of tumors or diagnosing skin diseases, we must learn the fine details distinguishing among tumors or skin diseases.

Pattern recognition, then, is a spatial skill demanded by many disciplines. People learn to distinguish critical features in their proper, two-dimensional spatial configurations. Other professions, however, require skill in thinking about three-dimensional configurations, a process especially difficult for the human mind. Although the physical world is (at least) three dimensional, the image captured on the retina and represented topographically in visual areas of the cortex is two dimensional. Thus, the three-dimensional world is a mental construct built from numerous cues to depth as well as experience navigating the world. Experience teaches us how to integrate two-dimensional views into three-dimensional representations. Integration of two-dimensional views can be accomplished by means of features, objects, and landmarks common to different views. Integration of two-dimensional views is also accomplished by means of a frame of reference that is

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