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## Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum (2006) Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR)

### Citation Manager

. "3 Spatial Thinking in Everyday Life, at Work, and in Science." Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.

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Learning To Think Spatially

FIGURE 3.9 The period-luminosity diagram for the Cepheids. This diagram shows Henrietta Leavitt’s graph of data for the Small Magellanic Cloud. It illustrates the relationship between the period of a Cepheid variable and its average luminosity. Left: m refers to the average apparent magnitude of the variable as observed; right: M refers to absolute magnitude of the variable stars. SOURCE: http://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/courses/one/NOTES/Garry%20Pilkington/cepinp1.htm.

FIGURE 3.10 The characteristic light curve of a Cepheid variable. This star has a period of approximately 5.5 days (log 0.74), which implies that it has an absolute magnitude of approximately −1.5. Recalling from Figure 3.9 that the magnitude scale is a logarithmic scale of luminosity and that stars whose absolute magnitude differs by 5 differ in intrinsic luminosity by a factor of 100, we can calculate the distance to the star. The average apparent magnitude (visual magnitude in the figure) is 3.75, making the difference between absolute and apparent magnitude slightly more than 5. Therefore, the star appears approximately 100 times less luminous than it would if it were at the standard distance of 10 parsecs. Applying the inverse square law (luminosity decreases in proportion to 1/r2), one can infer that this star would be slightly more than 100 parsecs away. SOURCE: Abell, 1969, p. 480.

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 Front Matter (R1-R18) Executive Summary (1-10) 1 Introduction (11-22) PART I: THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF SPATIAL THINKING --2 The Nature of Spatial Thinking (23-48) 3 Spatial Thinking in Everyday Life, at Work, and in Science (49-93) 4 Teaching and Learning About Spatial Thinking (94-109) 5 Responding to the Need for Spatial Thinking (110-134) 6 Tools for Thought: The Concept of a Support System (135-152) PART II: SUPPORT FOR SPATIAL THINKING--7 High-Tech Support Systems for Spatial Thinking (153-165) 8 An Assessment of GIS as a System for Supporting Spatial Thinking in the K-12 Context (166-216) 9 GIS as a Support System for Spatial Thinking (217-226) PART III: SUPPORTING SPATIAL THINKING IN THE FUTURE--10 Conclusions and Recommendations (227-236) 11 The Spatial Thinker (237-242) References (243-256) Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff (257-263) Appendix B Oral Presentations and Written Statements (264-265) Appendix C Individual Differences in Spatial Thinking: The Effects of Age, Development, and Sex (266-280) Appendix D The Role of Spatial Representations in Learning, Problem Solving, and Transfer (281-284) Appendix E Software Descriptions and Resources (285-286) Appendix F What Is GIScience? (287-288) Appendix G The Introduction of GIS into K–12 Education (289-292) Appendix H Seasonal Differences: A Customized Eighth-Grade GIS Module (293-297) Appendix I List of Acronyms (298-300) Index (301-314)