• The potential changes that population migrations and individual travel impart on the distribution and character of even established associations create an ongoing need for surveillance.

Although the links between infectious diseases and chronic diseases can be complex and multifactorial, they can be characterized, and beneficial interventions against infection designed. Most fruitful is an approach that increases investments in the laboratory, epidemiology, and surveillance, emphasizing integration of these elements and collaborations that can increase the yield of research and medical science.

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