Appendix C
Biosketches

MEMBERS OF THE FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS

ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physicianin-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud is a member of the Institute of Medicine and its Board on Global Health. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program.



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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary Appendix C Biosketches MEMBERS OF THE FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physicianin-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud is a member of the Institute of Medicine and its Board on Global Health. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program.

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D., (Vice-chair), is Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board-certified in both areas. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, directing the Hepatitis Laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1983, serving first as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and then Vice Chair for Research of the Department of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Lemon moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He was subsequently appointed Dean pro tem of the School of Medicine in 1999, and permanent Dean of Medicine in 2000. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis C and hepatitis A. He is particularly interested in the molecular mechanisms controlling replication of these RNA genomes and related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. In addition, he has a longstanding interest in vaccine development. Dr. Lemon has published more than 180 papers and numerous textbook chapters related to hepatitis and other viral infections. He chaired the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of WHO’s Programme on Vaccine Development. From 2000 to 2002, he chaired the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on a Strategy for Minimizing the Impact of Naturally Occurring Infectious Diseases of Military Importance. At present, he is chairman of the U.S. Hepatitis Panel of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program and cochair of the IOM/ NRC Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Agents. DAVID ACHESON, M.D., is Chief Medical Officer at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He received his medical degree at the University of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his postdoctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust Training Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. Dr. Acheson was Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical School. Currently at the FDA, his research concentration is on foodborne patho-

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary gens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored or coauthored more than 72 journal articles, and 42 book chapters and reviews, and is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He is reviewer of more than 10 journals and is on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dr. Acheson is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America, and holds several patents. STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. The inventor or coinventor on 21 U.S. patents, he has published numerous scientific papers, primarily on oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years. NANCY CARTER-FOSTER, M.S.T.M., is Senior Advisor for Health Affairs for the U.S. Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Science and Health and the Secretary’s Representative on HIV/AIDS. She is responsible for identifying emerging health issues and making policy recommendations for USG foreign policy concerns regarding international health, and coordinates the Department’s interactions with the nongovernmental community. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Infectious Diseases, and a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has helped bring focus to global health issues in U.S. foreign policy and brought a national security focus to global health. In prior positions as Director for Congressional and Legislative Affairs for the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau of the U.S. Department of State, and Foreign Policy Advisory to the Majority WHIP U.S. House of Representatives, Trade Specialist Advisor to the House of Representatives Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee, and consultant to the

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary World Bank, Asia Technical Environment Division, Ms. Carter-Foster has worked on a wide variety of health, trade and environmental issues amassing in-depth knowledge and experience in policy development and program implementation. GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored more than 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases. JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now the Deputy Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner’s office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA’s response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master’s of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary laboratory’s research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation. EDUARDO GOTUZZO, M.D., is Principal Professor and Director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH), in Lima, Peru. He is also Chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and an Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama–Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo has been an active member of numerous international societies such as the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (President, 2000–2003), the Scientific Program of Infectious Diseases Society of America (2000–2003), the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994–present), the International Society for Infectious Diseases (President Elect, 1996–1998), and the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (President, 1991–1992). He has published more than 230 articles and chapters as well as 6 manuals and 1 book. Among the many recent honors and awards he has received, he was named an Honorary member of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2002), an Associated Member of National Academy of Medicine (2002), an Honorary Member of Society of Internal Medicine (2000), a Distinguished Visitor, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (1999), and the receipient of the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the field of Infectious Diseases from Trnava University, Slovakia (1998). MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, Dr. Hamburg’s many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians. CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology. DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this program, he was the chief of research activities in the Global Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989, prior to joining WHO, Dr Heymann spent 13 years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the former Zaire, and Malawi) on assignment from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African hemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr. Heymann spent two years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, and a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals. JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., is the Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service. A board-certified physician in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine, Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. from Stanford University in 1966 and 1971, respectively. He completed his residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. Since joining CDC in 1973 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, he has worked primarily on foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. In 1992, Dr. Hughes became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, which is addressing domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. LONNIE KING, D.V.M., is Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. Dr. King’s previous positions include both Associate Administrator and Administrator of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Deputy Administrator for USDA/APHIS/Veterinary Services. Before his government career, Dr. King was in private practice. He also has experience as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemiologist, and staff assignments involving Emergency Programs and Animal Health Information. Dr. King has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Office of Governmental Relations, and is certified in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. He has served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medicine Colleges, and currently serves as Co-Chair of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues, Lead Dean at Michigan State University for food safety with responsibility for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, and the Center for

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary Emerging Infectious Diseases. He is also codeveloper and course leader for Science, Politics, and Animal Health Policy. Dr. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. degrees from The Ohio State University, and his M.S. degree in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota. He has also completed the Senior Executive Program at Harvard University, and received a M.P.A. from American University. Dr. King previously served on the Committee for Opportunities in Agriculture, the Steering Committee for a Workshop on the Control and Prevention of Animal Diseases, and the Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption. JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University in New York City. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been on the genetic structure and function in microorganisms. Keenly interested in international health, Dr. Lederberg co-chaired both the Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and its successor, the IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001–2003). He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. JOSEPH MALONE, M.D., is Director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infection System (DoD–GEIS). The author of more than 20 publications, he is also an Associate Professor at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences and holds the Certificate of Knowledge in Travelers’ Health and Tropical Medicine from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. CAPT Malone has won several military awards, including the Crisis Response Service Award from the Department of Health and Human Services’ U.S. Public Health Service. Dr. Malone graduated from Boston University School of Medicine in 1980. He trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the Naval Hospitals in San Diego and in Bethesda, MD, leading to board certification, and became a staff physician at both hospitals. His naval career has included deployment to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in support of Operation Safe Harbor; attachment to Surgical Team 1 during Operation Desert Shield; and directorship of the Infectious Disease Division and HIV unit at the Naval Medical Center at Portsmouth, VA. His affiliation with DoD–GEIS began in 1999 while working with the Disease Surveillance Program at U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 in Cairo, Egypt. Later, as a member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program, Dr. Malone was deployed to New York City to aid the emergency public health response to the attacks of September 11, 2001. He also assisted in the public health response to documented anthrax contamination in Kansas City and was the acting state epidemiologist for the State of Missouri from February through June 2003, when he completed the CDC EIS program.

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary LYNN MARKS, M.D., is Senior Vice President of Infectious Diseases in the Medicine Development Center of GlaxoSmithKline. A board-certified physician in internal medicine and infectious diseases, he previously was on faculty of the Infectious Diseases department of the University of South Alabama College of Medicine. There he focused on patient care, teaching, and research on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined the anti-infectives clinical group of SmithKline Beecham, now GlaxoSmithKline, and progressed to become the global head of the Consumer Healthcare division’s Medical and Regulatory group. The move to his present position represented a return to pharmaceutical research and development. STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia after four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor of Virology at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994); the former was selected by American Scientist as one of the “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century.” Dr. Morse serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. As the chair and principal organizer of the 1989 Conference on Emerging Viruses held by the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, he coined the term and concept of emerging viruses and infections. He was a member of the joint Institute of Medicine (IOM)–National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health, chaired its task force on viruses, and contributed the committee’s report, Emerging Infections (1992). He also was a member of the IOM Committee on Xenograft Transplantation. Dr. Morse has been an adviser to the World Health Organization, the PanAmerican Health Organization, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and other federal agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED, the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases, and was an originator of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. At present, he serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He has served on the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Food Safety, Production to Consumption and Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program. In addition, he was a reviewer of the Institute of Medicine’s report on chemical and biological terrorism. GEORGE POSTE, Ph.D., D.V.M., is Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute and Dell E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999, he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham. During his tenure there, he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine and diagnostic products. He is Chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003, he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing and neuromorphic engineering. He is a Fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board Certified Pathologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published more than 350 scientific papers, coedited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology and infectious diseases and serves on the Editorial Board of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on healthcare and the challenges posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Poste is married

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary with three children. His personal interests are in military history, photography, automobile racing and exploring the wilderness of the American West. GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the Department of Veterans Affairs Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published more than 80 papers and several book chapters. JANET SHOEMAKER, is director of the American Society for Microbiology’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology (a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State), and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate cum laude from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has coauthored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary MAUREEN DURKIN, Ph.D., Dr.P.H., is Associate Professor of Public Health (Epidemiology) at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and Sergievsky Center, and Research Scientist at the New York State Psychiatric Institute’s Epidemiology of Brain Disorders Unit. Dr. Durkin has developed methodology for and directed comparative studies of the prevalence and causes of neurodevelopmental disabilities in developing countries. Her current research pertains to international policies relevant to public health and developmental disabilities, the epidemiology and prevention of pediatric neurotrauma, and long-term outcomes of premature birth. She has published widely on these topics, presented at national and international scientific meetings, and taught graduate level courses. Dr. Durkin has served as an advisor to the World Health Organization and a consultant to numerous organizations including the United Nations Statistical Office and the National Institutes of Health. EDUARDO L. FRANCO, M.P.H., Dr.P.H., is Professor of Epidemiology and Oncology and Director, Division of Cancer Epidemiology at McGill University’s Faculty of Medicine in Montreal, Canada. He was formerly a faculty member at Université du Québec (1989–1994) and Senior Researcher and Head of Epidemiology at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil (1985–1989). He received his undergraduate degree in biology (1975) from Universidade de Campinas, Brazil, and received graduate training in public health microbiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1981–1984). A Guest Researcher at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta from 1980 to 1981 and 1983 to 1984, Dr. Franco received postdoctoral training in cancer epidemiology at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France; at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda, MD; and at Louisiana State University. During the past 15 years, he has studied the molecular epidemiology and prevention of cervical cancer, upper aerodigestive tract cancers and childhood tumors, and the development of epidemiologic methods in the evaluation of screening efficacy and assessment of misclassification. He has published more than 170 scientific articles and chapters and edited two books on cancer epidemiology and prevention. Dr. Franco has held Associate Editor assignments with the American Journal of Epidemiology (1993–98) and with Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (since 1995), and as Editorial Board Member for Epidemiology, Medical and Pediatric Oncology, Cancer Detection and Prevention, and Cancer Prevention & Control. He has served on scientific and grant review panels at the National Cancer Institute, NIH; the Medical Research Council of Canada (MRC); the National Cancer Institute of Canada; the Pan American Health Organization; Health Canada; Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec (FRSQ); and the UK Cancer Research Campaign. He has mentored more than 50 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows since 1985. In addition to teaching at McGill, he has been an instructor in several annual or sporadic cancer epidemiology courses in the United States, South America, Europe, and the Middle East. He has served as

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary a member or chair of organizing or program committees for 12 international conferences on cancer epidemiology, papillomavirus research, and oncology. Dr. Franco has received numerous awards, including MRC Distinguished Scientist (2000), Educational Excellence at McGill University (2000), City of Montreal’s “Ambassadeur” (2000), FRSQ’s National Research Scholar Award (1999). EDUARDO GOTUZZO, M.D., is Principal Professor and Director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH), in Lima, Peru. He is also Chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and an Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama–Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo has been an active member of numerous international societies such as the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (President, 2000–2003), the Scientific Program of Infectious Diseases Society of America (2000–2003), the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994–present), the International Society for Infectious Diseases (President Elect, 1996–1998), and the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (President, 1991–1992). He has published more than 230 articles and chapters as well as 6 manuals and 1 book. Among the many recent honors and awards he has received, he was named an Honorary member of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2002), an Associated Member of National Academy of Medicine (2002), an Honorary Member of Society of Internal Medicine (2000), a Distinguished Visitor, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (1999), and the receipient of the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the field of Infectious Diseases from Trnava University, Slovakia (1998). RICHARD L. GUERRANT, M.D., is Thomas H. Hunter Professor of International Medicine and Director of the Office of International Health at the University of Virginia School of Medicine. Author of more than 350 scientific articles and reviews and numerous major textbook chapters, and editor of 6 books, Dr. Guerrant graduated from Davidson College and University of Virginia School of Medicine and was trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the Harvard Medical Service of the Boston City Hospital, NIH, Johns Hopkins and UVa. He has worked in the Congo, Bangladesh, and Brazil and started the Division of Geographic and International Medicine with Kellogg and Rockefeller support in 1978. Since then he has recruited outstanding faculty (including Drs. Richard Pearson, Erik Hewlett, Jonathan Ravdin, Cynthia Sears, David Bobak, and Nathan Thielman) and his group has trained more than 90 postdoctoral fellows and students who are becoming leaders in tropical medicine, including Dr. James Hughes, Director of NCID at CDC, Drs. Jonathan Ravdin, Cynthia Sears, Chris Wanke and Aldo Lima. Dr. Guerrant is holder of 8 patents on innovative approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of common gastrointestinal illnesses and

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary was Henderson Inventor of the Year in 1997 for his new glutamine derivativebased ORNT (oral rehydration and nutrition therapy). Guerrant was named Professor Honoris Causa at UFC and received the Emilio Ribas Medal of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases in 1997. He has served on several editorial and USDA and WHO advisory boards, VA and NIH Study Sections, Clark and Child Health Foundation Boards, chaired the U.S. Cholera Panel of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, and the International Affairs Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. RICHARD T. JOHNSON, M.D., is Distinguished Service Professor of Neurology, Microbiology and Neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He has a joint appointment in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. He has studied the pathogenesis of viral infections of the nervous system in animals and humans including studies of acute meningitis and encephalitis, viral-induced malformations, demyelinating diseases, and HIV-associated neurological diseases. He has published more than 300 articles and chapters and 10 books including a single authored volume on Viral Infections of the Nervous System (2nd ed. 1998). He was Director of the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins between 1988 and 1997. Since retiring from that post, he has been the Editor of Annals of Neurology, served for 3 years as Founding Director of the National Neuroscience Institute of Singapore, chaired the Institute of Medicine Committee on Transmisssible Spongiform Encephalopathies: Assessment of Relevant Science, and is a Special Consultant to the National Institutes of Health on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Dr. Johnson has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1987. ALTAF LAL, Ph.D., is the Chief of Molecular Vaccine Section, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. He is also an adjunct Professor in the Biology Department, Emory University. Dr. Lal received his PhD in Chemistry from Kanpur University and did his work at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow. He was a Fogarty Visiting Fellow at the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). He has been at CDC for the last 12 years; his research program focuses on conducting laboratory and field studies on parasitic diseases, with a focus on malaria. In addition to conducting studies in Atlantabased laboratories, Dr. Lal conducts field-based studies on malaria in western Kenya and enteric parasite work in Calcutta, India. He also collaborates with investigators working on malaria in several South American, Asian, and African countries. He has published more than 175 articles and has received funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development, WHO, NIH, the National Vaccine Program Office at CDC, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary W. IAN LIPKIN, M.D., is Professor of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health, Director of the Laboratory for Immunopathogenesis and Infectious Diseases and Center for Developmental Neuroscience of Columbia University, and the Louise Turner Arnold Chair of Neurosciences and Professor of Neurology, Anatomy and Neurobiology, and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at the University of California, Irvine. Dr. Lipkin was the first to identify an infectious agent by subtractive cloning (Borna disease virus, 1990). He also led the team that used unique molecular methods to identify the West Nile virus as the cause of the encephalitis outbreak in New York State in the fall of 1999. His laboratory investigates the role of infectious agents and immune responses in pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system diseases through molecular epidemiology and animal modeling. Dr. Lipkin received a BA from Sarah Lawrence College in 1974, and an MD from Rush Medical College in 1978. His postgraduate training included Residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Washington in 1979–81, Residency in Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981–84, and Fellowship in Neurovirology and Molecular Neurobiology at The Scripps Research Institute from 1984–1990. He is a 1991 Pew Scholar and a 2001 Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Disease. WILLIAM MASON, Ph.D., Senior Member at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, joined in 1973 following a postdoctoral fellowship in retrovirology in the laboratory of Dr. Peter K. Vogt, at the University of Southern California. He began working on hepatitis B in 1980 following the discovery of duck hepatitis B virus by Dr. Jesse Summers. This early work, carried out in collaboration with Summers and with John Taylor, led to the widespread adoption of this animal model as the system for studying how these viruses replicate. One of the immediate consequences of this work was the discovery by Summers and Mason that hepatitis B viruses replicate by reverse transcription, like the retroviruses, and the development of a detailed model for this process, again with Summers and Taylor. The duck virus also served as an early and continuing model for the evaluation of antiviral therapies. Since 1990, Dr. Mason’s lab has studied how hepatitis B viruses maintain a chronic infection, and the effects of antiviral agents such as lamivudine and L-FMAU on this process. This work has employed the duck model of chronic infection, as well as the woodchuck model, which had been discovered by Summers in the 1970s. Current work in Mason’s laboratory is focused on the consequences of combining drug therapy with immunotherapy to stimulate the host’s defenses against infected liver cells, and microarray technology to evaluate the progression of chronic infections. PATRICK S. MOORE, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor and Codirector, KSHV Laboratory, Department of Pathology at Columbia University. Dr. Moore’s primary research interest involves use of molecular biology to investigate funda-

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary mental epidemiologic problems. His laboratory is devoted to discovery and characterization of new viruses associated with chronic diseases. In collaboration with his wife and lab codirector, Dr. Yuan Chang, he discovered the newest human tumor virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in 1993. Subsequent work from this laboratory demonstrated the causal association between KSHV and KS using a modern reinterpretation of Hill’s criteria and employing whole KSHV genome sequencing and development of serologic and DNA-based assays. Current research efforts are devoted to identifying specific KSHV genes causing cell transformation and proliferation. Dr. Moore received his MD from the University of Utah (1985) and an MPH from University of California, Berkeley (1989). He was an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer in the Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, CDC (1987–1989), and was involved in the discovery and characterization of the 1988–1996 clone III-1 group A N. meningitidis pandemic of sub-Saharan Africa. He also led refugee evaluation teams in Nepal and Somalia in 1992 for CDC and was the New York City Epidemiologist in 1993. DAVID M. MORENS, M.D., received the A.B. degree (Psychology) in 1969 and the M.D. degree in 1973, both from the University of Michigan. He is Board Certified in Pediatrics (1978) and in Preventive Medicine (1980), with fellowship training in pediatric infectious diseases. He was also trained in epidemiology in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). After joining the CDC staff, Dr. Morens served as a medical virologist studying enteroviruses and enteric gastroenteritis viruses, as Chief of CDC’s Respiratory & Special Pathogens Branch, and for two years studied Lassa fever in Sierra Leone, West Africa. From 1982 to 1998, he was Professor of Tropical Medicine at the University of Hawaii, and from 1987–1998 Professor and Chairman, Epidemiology Department, School of Public Health. Dr. Morens’ has studied the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers, viral pathogenesis, and the integration and role of epidemiology in biomedical science and research. His career interest for more than 25 years has been on emerging infectious diseases and on diseases of unknown etiology. In the past decade he has published and spoken on numerous aspects of the history of epidemiology and infectious diseases. Currently Dr. Morens is on University leave, working in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. SIOBHÁN O’CONNOR, M.D., M.P.H., is the Assistant to the Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, for Infectious Causes of Chronic Diseases, and a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. She received a Master of Public Health from the Harvard School of Public Health in 1997, her Doctor of Medicine from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston in 1986, and a Bachelor of Science from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her postdoctoral training includes both clini-

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary cal rheumatology and laboratory research fellowships at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine/Barnes Hospital following a residency in internal medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. She has been board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology. Dr. O’Connor joined the CDC in 1997 to develop a collaborative research agenda on infectious etiologies of chronic diseases. Activities emphasize integrating laboratory science, epidemiology and surveillance to define causal links between recognized and novel infectious agents and chronic syndromes, translating findings into prevention strategies for the populations at risk. In this capacity, Dr. O’Connor also serves on the NIH Autoimmune Diseases Coordinating Committee, chairs several multidisciplinary and multi-agency committees on related issues and serves as a national advisor to a clinical consortium. She is a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American College of Rheumatology, and the American Society for Microbiology. MARK A. PALLANSCH, Ph.D., is a Distinguished Consultant and Chief of the Enterovirus Section in the Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Responsibilities include multiple areas of research and testing with poliovirus and the non-polio enteroviruses. Research areas include studies of natural variation and recombination, molecular epidemiology, and association of enterovirus infection with neonatal infections and chronic diseases such as juvenile-onset diabetes and myocarditis. Also responsible for enterovirus diagnostics, which includes laboratory support for epidemiological studies, characterization of enterovirus isolates, identification and strain characterization of poliovirus isolates, and development of improved diagnostic techniques and reagents. Directly involved in supporting design, technology and implementation of the poliovirus laboratory network as part of the global poliovirus eradication initiative. DAVID PERSING, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President of Discovery Research at Corixa Corporation, and Medical Director of the Infectious Disease Research Institute, both located in Seattle, WA. David earned his M.D.–Ph.D. from University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in 1988. The research for his doctoral thesis in biochemistry and biophysics was conducted in the laboratories of Don Ganem and Harold Varmus at UCSF. After completing his residency in Laboratory Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, he joined the staff of the Mayo Clinic, where he established research programs in tickborne diseases, hepatitis viruses, and infections associated with human cancer. In 1992 he became founding director of the Clinic’s Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, which became one of the preeminent molecular diagnostic laboratories of its type in the United States. In 1999, he assumed his present position in Seattle, where his focus is on innate immunity, vaccine development, and human immunogenetic influences on vaccine responses. He is principal investigator of a $3.5 mil-

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary lion, two year research program on innate immunity funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and has a long track record of extramural funding from the National Institutes of Health. David serves on a number of corporate boards and advisory councils including the Boards of Directors for Virologic and ASM resources, and science advisory boards for IDI, the Burrill and Company Life Sciences Investment Funds, and the Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Center. He has authored 213 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, has served as Editor-in-Chief of 2 books, and is listed as an inventor on 21 issued or pending U.S. patents. MIKHAIL PLETNIKOV, M.D., Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. He graduated with Honors from I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Institute, Moscow, Russia in 1986. He completed his postgraduate training in normal physiology at PK Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Moscow, Russia in 1989 and received his Ph.D. in normal physiology in 1990. He joined the laboratory of molecular neurophysiology of that institute the same year and worked there until 1996 as a team leader with a special interest in a neurobehavioral analysis of a role of the cerebellum and hippocampus in learning and memory in developing and adult rats. From 1996 to 1999, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the laboratory of Dr. Kathryn Carbone at CBER/FDA and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine studying neurobehavioral consequences of neonatal Borna disease virus infection. He joined the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1999 and continues pathogenesis studies of neurodevelopmental damage using the neonatal Borna disease virus infection animal model. THOMAS C. QUINN, M.D., M.Sc., is Senior Investigator and Head of the Section on International AIDS Research in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Since 1981, he has been assigned to the Division of Infectious Diseases at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine where he is a Professor of Medicine. He also has adjunct appointments in the Department of International Health, and the Department of Immunology and Molecular Microbiology in The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He currently directs the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine P3 HIV/AIDS Research Facility and the International STD Research Laboratory. Dr. Quinn’s investigations have involved the study of the epidemiologic, virologic, immunologic features of HIV infection in Africa, the Caribbean, South America and Asia. In 1984, he helped establish the interagency project called “Project SIDA” in Kinshasa, Zaire which was the largest AIDS investigative project in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Quinn has been involved in laboratory investigations which have helped define the biological factors involved in heterosexual transmission and perinatal transmission, the natural history of HIV infections in

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary developing countries, and the identification and characterization of unique strains of HIV-1 infection. Immunologic studies have included the changes in T-cell phenotypes and cytokines in patients with HIV infection and other endemic tropical diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. Among his professional activities, Dr. Quinn has been an Advisor/Consultant on HIV and STDs to the World Health Organization, UNAIDS and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He is a member of Editorial Boards of six journals focusing on infectious diseases, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. He is an author of more than 600 publications on HIV, STDs and infectious diseases. JOSEMIR W. SANDER, M.D., M.R.C.P., Ph.D., is the NSE Professor of Neurology and Clinical Epilepsy at the Institute of Neurology of University College, London. He is Honorary Consultant Neurologist at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, Queen Square and at the National Society for Epilepsy in Buckinghamshire. Dr. Sander is Head of the WHO Collaborative Centre for Research and Training in Neurosciences, London, and Director of the Clinical Trials Unit at the National Society for Epilepsy–Chalfont Centre. He qualified in the University of Parana in Brazil and after his initial medical training in Brazil, he moved to the United Kingdom where he completed his neurological training. He obtained his Ph.D. at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of London. He serves as a member of the Management Committee of the International League Against Epilepsy and is a member of numerous organisations and professional societies including the Royal Society of Medicine, The American Academy of Neurology, The American Epilepsy Society and the British Medical Association. A frequent speaker at international conferences and a member of the editorial boards of several specialist journals, Dr. Sander has published extensively on various aspects of epilepsy, particularly drug issues, patient care and epidemiology. The International League against Epilepsy and the International Bureau for Epilepsy made him an Ambassador for Epilepsy in 1993. THOMAS M. SHINNICK, Ph.D., is Chief of the Tuberculosis/ Mycobacteriology Branch of the Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research at the National Center for Infectious Disease (NCID) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He also is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Emory University. The author or coauthor of more than 130 publications and editor of one book, Dr. Shinnick has focused his research on understanding the biology and genetics of the pathogenic mycobacteria, elucidating mechanisms of pathogenicity and drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and developing rapid methods for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections. He received his bachelor of science in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and his doctorate in biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He won the Johnson and Johnson Predoctoral Fellowship in 1977 and the Helen Hay Whitney Foun-

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary dation Postdoctoral Fellowship in 1978, conducting his postdoctoral training at the Research Institute of Scripps Clinic. Subsequently, he became an assistant professor in the institute’s department of molecular biology. Dr. Shinnick joined NCID in 1986 as Chief of the Hansen Disease Laboratory in the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases until 1995, when he became Chief of the Immunology and Molecular Pathogensis Section in NCID’s Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research. The following year, he assumed his current post. Dr. Shinnick has been honored with the Arthur S. Flemming Award (1990), the PHS Special Recognition Group Award (1993), and the NCID Honor Award (1993). He has been a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology since 1994 and a member of the Senior Biomedical Research Service since 1997. SUSAN E. SWEDO, M.D., is Chief of the Pediatrics and Developmental Neuropsychiatry Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), NIH. There she leads a clinical research team investigating the causes and treatment of pediatric and neuropsychiatric disorders such as childhood-onset anxiety disorders, affective disorders, and movement disorders such as Tourette’s Syndrome. Dr. Swedo led the NIMH team that first identified a new subtype of obsessivecompulsive disorder in children, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with strep. Not only has this work resulted in several new and prevention strategies, but it has also led to a patent on a biological marker to help identify children at risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders. Dr. Swedo received her M.D. from Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and served her residency at Children’s Memorial Hospital at Northwestern University in Chicago. Dr. Swedo began her career as a practicing pediatrician in Chicago, where she served as Chief of Adolescent Medicine at the McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University. She moved to the Washington area in 1986 and joined the staff of the Child Psychiatry Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health, where she conducted research on the pharmacological treatment of childhood OCD. The recipient of numerous awards, including the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Award for Scientific Achievement, Dr. Swedo is the author of more than 90 professional books and articles. She is the co-author with Dr. Henrietta Leonard of It’s Not All in Your Head for women and Is It Just a Phase?, a parent’s guide to common childhood behavioral problems. ROBERT YOLKEN, M.D., graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Medical School and did a residence in Pediatrics at Yale. He received Fellowship training at Cornell–New York Hospital and at the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. He joined the faculty in the Department of Pediatrics in 1979 and is currently the Ted and Vada Stanley Distinguished Professor of Developmental Neurovirology in that Department. His research interests include diagnostic virology and the identification of infectious causes of

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The Infectious Etiology of Chronic Diseases: Defining the Relationship, Enhancing the Research, and Mitigating the Effects - Workshop Summary chronic diseases. Since 1995 he has worked extensively on studies related to the etiology of human neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. He is the author or coauthor of more than 200 publications in peer reviewed journals and is one of the coeditors of the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. He has received numerous awards including the Abbott Award for the Rapid Diagnosis of Human Diseases, the Wellcome Diagnostics Award, and the Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research. FORUM STAFF STACEY L. KNOBLER, is Director of the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). She previously served as the codirector of the IOM Board on Global Health’s study, Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders in Developing Countries (2001), and as the research associate for the Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus (1999). Ms. Knobler is actively involved in program research and development for the Board on Global Health. Previously, she held positions as a Research Associate at the Brookings Institution’s Foreign Policy Studies Program and as an Arms Control and Democratization Consultant for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ms. Knobler has also worked as a research and negotiations analyst in Israel and Palestine. She is currently a member of the CBACI Senior Working Group for Health, Security, and U.S. Global Leadership. Ms. Knobler has conducted research and coauthored published articles on biological and nuclear weapons control, foreign aid, health in developing countries, poverty and public assistance, and the Arab–Israeli peace process. MARJAN NAJAFI, M.P.H., was the research associate for the Forum on Microbial Threats in the Board on Global Health from March 2001 to November 2003. She also worked with the IOM committee that produced Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Ms. Najafi received her undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and applied mathematics from the University of Rhode Island. Subsequently, she served as a public health engineer with the Maryland Department of Environment and, later, with the Research Triangle Institute in North Carolina. After earning a master’s of public health from the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, she managed a lead-poisoning prevention program in Micronesia, funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She also studied the effects of cellular phone radiation on human health.

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