Kirschbaum JO and Kligman AM. 1963. The pathogenic role of Corynebacterium acnes in acne vulgaris. Archives of Dermatology 88:832–833.

Knop J, Ollefs K, Frosch PJ. 1983. Anti-P. acnes antibody in comedonal extracts. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 80:9–12.


Layton AM, Henderson CA, Cunliffe WJ. 1994. A clinical evaluation of acne scarring and its incidence. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 19:303–308.

Lazar JM and Schulman DS. 1992. Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case of severe aortic insufficiency. Clinical Cardiology 15:299–300.


Mohsen AH, Price A, Ridgway E, West JN, Green S, McKendrick MW. 2001. Propionibacterium acnes endocarditis in a native valve complicated by intraventricular abscess: a case report and review. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 33:379–380.


Noble WC. 1984. Skin microbiology: coming of age. Journal of Medical Microbiology 17:1–12

Norris JF and Cunliffe WJ. 1988. A histological and immunocytochemical study of early acne lesions. The British Journal of Dermatology 118:651–659.


Okamura H, Nagata K, Komatsu T, Tanimoto T, Nukata Y, Tanabe F, Akita K, Torigoe K, Okura T, Fukuda S. 1995. A novel costimulatory factor for gamma interferon induction found in the livers of mice causes endotoxic shock. Infection and Immunity 63:3966–3972.


Plewig G and Kligman AM, eds. 2000. Acne and Rosacea, 3rd ed., 744 pages. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Puhvel SM and Sakamoto M. 1977. Chemoattractant properties of Corynebacterium parvum and pyran copolymer for human monocytes and neutrophils. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 58:781–783.


Stirling A, Worthington T, Rafiq M, Lambert PA, Elliott TS. 2001. Association between sciatica and Propionibacterium acnes. Lancet 357:2024–2025.


Thompson TP and Albright AL. 1998. Propionibacterium [correction of Proprionibacterium] acnes infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts. Childs Nervous System 14:378–380.

Tunney MM, Patrick S, Curran MD, Ramage G, Hanna D, Nixon JR, Gorman SP, Davis RI, Anderson N. 1999. Detection of prosthetic hip infection at revision arthroplasty by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37:3281–3290.


Underdahl JP, Florakis GJ, Braunstein RE, Johnson DA, Cheung P, Briggs J, Meisler DM. 2000. Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of visually significant corneal ulcers. Cornea 19:451–454.


Vymola F, Buda J, Lochmann O, Pillich J. 1970. Successful treatment of acne by immunotherapy. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology 14:135–138.

Vowels BR, Yang S, Leyden JJ. 1995. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: implications for chronic inflammatory acne. Infection and Immunity 63:3158–3165.


Webster GF, Leyden JJ, Norman ME, Nilsson UR. 1978. Complement activation in acne vulgaris: in vitro studies with Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. Infection and Immunity 22:523–529.

Wizemann TM, Heinrichs JH, Adamou JE, Erwin AL, Kunsch C, Choi GH, Barash SC, Rosen CA, Masure HR, Tuomanen E, Gayle A, Brewah YA, Walsh W, Barren P, Lathigra R, Hanson M, Langermann S, Johnson S, Koenig S. 2001. Use of a whole genome approach to identify vaccine molecules affording protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Infection and Immunity 69:1593–1598.


Yu JL, Mansson R, Flock JI, Ljungh A. 1997. Fibronectin binding by Propionibacterium acnes. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 19:247–253.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement