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institutions, which produce research work, could potentially convert their data into online accessible material. Many of these institutions, and also several professional societies, publish science journals. Tools like the Open Journal Systems1 could help many of these journals to come online in an open-access environment.

Technical reports produced by many R&D projects, laboratories, and other institutions would also be candidates for providing open access. Theses and dissertations at universities, conferences, research papers—whether preprints or postprints, unpublished research findings, data, or standards are candidates for open-access publishing in India and in other countries.

The following examples of open-access initiatives in India are drawn from scholarly science journals, theses, institutional archives, books, data and open access at the metadata level, and open access at portal and gateway services.

One example is the Indian Academy of Sciences, established in 1934. The Indian Academy of Sciences is one of three science academies in India. Apart from various other activities it publishes 11 science journals reporting research work both in India and outside. These journals, mainly in print, are freely accessible on the Web.2 The Indian Academy of Sciences is currently digitizing all the archival issues and expects to post them online very soon. The managing editor of these journals noted that offering these journals on the Web has increased subscriptions to the print journals from foreign countries, because more researchers and libraries outside India are learning about them.

The Indian National Science Academy publishes journals, proceedings, and monographs and provides these online.3 Vidyanidhi, meaning the “treasure of knowledge” in Sanskrit, is another open-access initiative that is trying to digitize and host theses and dissertations. It operates from the University of Mysore and is part of the global electronic thesis and dissertation initiative.4 The Vidyanidhi project is also developing workflows and definitions and addresses multilingual support issues. Other institutions are putting their theses online as well, including the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi.

The E-print archives of the Indian Institute of Science5 is an online digital repository of research papers, both preprints and postprints, technical reports, unpublished findings, and journal articles of the faculty. It was set up using open-source software, and is registered in the e-prints registry. Eprints@iisc is now part of the worldwide institutional e-print archives. The E-prints archives allow the faculty and students to submit their publications electronically to the campus network. Although depositing is not allowed from outside the campus, access is allowed from anywhere on the Internet. The eprints@iisc Web site also supports metadata for browsing and searching. It is also integrated with the Greenstone Digital Library software, which enables full-text searching of the e-prints.

The Universal Library is another interesting project. It is funded by the Office of the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India and is hosted by the Indian Institute of Science in collaboration with the Carnegie Mellon University in the United States.6 The goal of this project is to provide a free, searchable collection of 1 million books that are no longer copyrighted. The collection is also expected to act as a test bed for research in language processing, indexing, and retrieval.

There are some examples of initiatives that provide open access to data as well. The National Chemical Laboratory is a national research lab in India that provides free access to their data, including data from the National Collection of Industrial Micro-organisms and the National Centre for Biodiversity Informatics.7 There are also open-access initiatives at the metadata level. INDMED, at the National Informatics Centre in Delhi, is a bibliographic database of Indian biomedical literature and indexes 75 Indian journals.8 There is also a backup


For more information on the Open Journal Systems, see Chapter 32 of these Proceedings, “The Public Knowledge Project’s Open Journal Systems,” by Florence Muinde.


See This site offers links to the various science journals published by the Indian Academy of Sciences.










See and, respectively.


For additional information on INDMED, see

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