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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium Appendix B Biographical Summaries of Symposium Speakers and Steering Committee Members SYMPOSIUM SPEAKERS Chrisanthi Avgerou is a senior lecturer in information systems at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She teaches postgraduate courses on information systems implementation and on information systems in developing countries. She chaired the IFIP WG 9.4 on “Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries” from 1996 to 2002. Her research is concerned with the study of the dual process of the utilization of information technology and organizational change within different socio-organizational contexts; one of her recent publications is on this subject (Information Systems and Global Diversity, 2002, Oxford University Press). R. Stephen Berry has been the James Franck Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemistry at the James Franck Institute at the University of Chicago since 1989. He has A.B., A.M., and Ph.D. degrees and has taught at Harvard, the University of Michigan, and Yale. He has received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship and has spent extended periods at the University of Copenhagen, Oxford, Université de Paris-Sud, and the Frei Universität Berlin. Dr. Berry’s research interests include the electronic structure of atoms and molecules; photo- and collisional detachment of negative ions; photochemistry of reactive organic molecules; vibronic coupling processes, such as autoionization, predissociation, and internal vibrational relaxation; thermodynamics of finite-time processes; dynamics and structure of atomic and molecular clusters; phase changes in very small systems; chaos and ergodicity in few-body systems; and most recently as an outgrowth of the cluster studies, dynamics on many-dimensional potential surfaces and the origins of protein folding. He has also worked extensively with the efficient use of environmental energy and other resources. Dr. Berry is also interested in issues of science and the law, and management of scientific data, activities that have brought him into the arena of electronic media for scientific information and issues of intellectual property in that context. He is a member and the home secretary of the National Academy of Sciences. He has been involved in many activities of the National Academies, including chairing the committee that produced the book Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Massey Beveridge is the director of the Office of International Surgery at the University of Toronto and is an attending surgeon at the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. He has a longstanding interest in development issues, and was trained as an anthropologist at McGill and Cambridge universities. He has worked as a surgeon and surgical educator in a number of countries and now
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium focuses on surgical education and research for development. Dr. Beveridge earned B.A., M. Phil., and M.D. degrees and a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Gilberto Câmara is the director for earth observation at Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE). He holds a B.S.E.E. from the Aeronautics Technological Institute, São José dos Campos, and an Ms.C. and a Ph.D. in computer science from INPE. He has written some 100 scientific papers and four books on design of geographical information systems, spatial databases, spatial analysis, and remotely sensed image processing. He is a consultant to the most important Brazilian funding agencies and teaches and supervises graduate students in INPE’s graduate programs in remote sensing and computer science. Leslie Chan is an associate director of Bioline International, a not-for-profit electronic publishing collaborative designed to improve global access to research published in developing countries. A trustee of the Electronic Publishing Trust for Development since 1997, Dr. Chan is active in promoting partnerships between educational and research institutions in the hope of narrowing the knowledge gap between the South and the North. He is one of the original drafters and signators of the Budapest Open Access Initiative, a worldwide movement that encourages open institutional archiving and free access to scholarly publications. As a lecturer in the Division of Social Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Dr. Chan teaches courses in new media, civic engagement, and international communications. He is frequently invited by international organizations to conduct workshops on knowledge management, electronic publishing, and instructional technology. Liu Chuang is the director of the Global Change Information and Research Center, within the Institute of Geography and Natural Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. She serves as the cochair of the CODATA Task Group on Preservation and Archiving of Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries, member of the ICSU Task Group on World Data Centers, associate director of the Data Committee of China Association of Geographical Information Systems, secretary general of Remote Sensing and Data Information Network, and member of the Chinese National Committee of International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Dr. Liu Chuang was an information scientist and China Project Leader at the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) from 1994 to 1998; visiting professor of University of British Columbia, Canada, from 1992 to 1993; and associate professor of Peking University from 1989 to 1991. She served for UNDP/FAO and Asia Development Bank as a consultant and technical assistant during 1995 to 1998. She received her Ph.D. in geography from Peking University, China, and her master and bachelor degrees in geography in China. She has received awards from START (USA), CIESIN (USA), MOST (China), Peking University (China), and ISPRS (Japan) based on her scientific achievements. Robin Cowan is professor of the economics of technical change at Maastricht University. He began his official affiliation with MERIT in 1996 as a professorial fellow. He studied at Queen’s University in Canada and at Stanford University where he received a Ph.D. in economics and an M.A. in philosophy. Robin Cowan was assistant professor of economics at the University of Western Ontario until 1998. His current research focuses on technology competitions and standardization, the dynamics of consumption, and the economics of networks. He is also doing research on the changing nature of the economics of knowledge and intellectual property rights in the new economy. In the past he has done consulting research for the OECD on the economics of standards and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on technological lock-in and renewable energy technologies. Recently, he has completed two research projects on “Intellectual Property Rights in a Knowledge-Based Economy” with Elad Harison for the Dutch Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy. Professor Cowan is also an adjunct professor at the Economics Department at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. David Dickson is the founding director of the Science and Development Network (SciDev.Net), a Web-based news and information service set up in 2001 that covers science, technology, and the developing world. A graduate in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, he has formerly been science correspondent of The Times Higher Education Settlement, the Washington correspondent of Nature, the European correspondent of
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium Science, and the editor of New Scientist. Prior to entering journalism, he was the first executive secretary of the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science. He is the author of Alternative Technology (London 1973), and The New Politics of Science (University of Chicago Press, 1986). Thomas Dreier is a professor of law at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, where he is the director of the Institute for Information Law. In the spring of 2002, Professor Dreier was Global Visiting Professor of Law at the New York University School of Law. Before joining the University of Karlsruhe, Professor Dreier worked at the Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law in Munich, Germany. He is vice-president of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale and vice-chairman of its German national group, as well as a member of the Legal Advisory Board of the EU’s DG Information Society and of the Advisory Panel on Intellectual Property of the Steering Committee of the Mass Media of the Council of Europe. Professor Dreier also acts as executive secretary of the German Computer Law Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Recht und Informatik, DGRI). He earned a J.D. (Munich) and a M.C.J. (NYU). Sarah Durrant is a senior programme manager for the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) Programme for the Enhancement of Research Information (PERI). She works with publishers and information providers to develop differentially priced access terms in order to make their products and services affordable, and therefore sustainable, in developing countries. Before joining INASP she had a 12-year career in international scientific, technical, and medical publishing at Harcourt Brace/Academic Press (now Elsevier) in London and John Wiley & Sons, working mostly on journals, particularly electronic journals. As manager of STM Journals Development for Wiley Europe, Sarah helped developed Wiley’s online journals service, Wiley InterScience; this was followed by two years with the dynamic and innovative journals digitization and hosting company CatchWord/Ingenta. Clemente Forero-Pineda is a professor at the University of the Andes and Rosario in Bogotá, Colombia. He earned a certificate in mathematics and physics and an engineering degree at Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France). He completed an M.A. and a Ph.D. in economics at Stanford University. He was dean of the School of Economics at Colombia’s National University and director-general of Colombia’s National Science Fund (Colciencias). Andrew Kaniki is the executive director of Knowledge Management and Strategy at the National Research Foundation in South Africa. Until recently he was a professor of information studies; during the last three years he has been the pro vice-chancellor and acting deputy vice-chancellor (academic) at the University of Natal, South Africa. He has also taught at the University of Zambia and worked as a science information specialist at the Engineering and Science Library, Carnegie Mellon University in the United States. He holds a bachelor’s degree in politics and library science (University of Zambia), an M.S. from the University of Illinois, and a Ph.D. and agricultural information specialist certificate from the University of Pittsburgh. He has published and presented several conference papers on information needs and use. Koïchiro Matsuura was elected the eighth director-general of UNESCO on November 15, 1999. His studies in economy and law, which he started at the University of Tokyo and continued in the United States, permitted him to start a diplomatic career at a very early age. He entered the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs at a young age as the third secretary of the Embassy of Japan in Ghana and West Africa. After a brief stint holding various positions at the central administration at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Japan, Mr. Matsuura then gained significant intergovernmental organization experience as second and then first secretary of the Japanese Delegation to the OECD. Stops as counsellor of the Embassy of Japan in the United States and consul general of Japan in Hong Kong proved essential to being named director-general of the Economic Cooperation Bureau within the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. While director-general of the North American Affairs Bureau, Mr. Matsuura began his formal writing career and has had numerous titles published. An accomplished author in the fields of economic cooperation, bilateral relations, and perspectives on development, Mr. Matsuura then represented Japan
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium at the 1994 G-7 summit as deputy minister for Foreign Affairs. From 1994 to 1999, Mr. Matsuura was called upon to serve as Ambassador of Japan to France and concurrently to Andorra and Djibouti during which he published Japanese Diplomacy at the Dawn of the 21st Century. His first contact with UNESCO was as chairperson of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO where he showed a natural aptitude for dealing with cultural heritage issues. Florence Muinde is a senior programmes officer for the Kenya Civil Service Reform Secretariat and a UNESCO/ Keizo Obuchi research fellow at the University of British Columbia, Canada, in the area of information and communication technologies and research capacity development in developing countries. She has a master’s degree in education (library and information sciences) from Kenyatta University. She has taught in various secondary schools in Kenya and has worked as a trainer, researcher, and officer in charge of data management in the textbooks for a primary schools project sponsored by the U.K. Department for International Development and the Government of Kenya. In 2000 she won a scholarship to participate in a course at the University of Hamburg in information as a social resource. This culminated in the initiation of a virtual women’s university and writing of a book titled The Feminist Challenges in the Information Age. Saloshini Muthayan holds a doctoral fellowship from the National Research Foundation, South Africa and is a doctoral candidate at the University of British Columbia; she is also a research assistant with the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia (http://pkp.ubc.ca). Ms. Muthayan’s research focuses on ways of building the research capacity of universities in the developing world, using South African universities as a case in point. In particular, she is examining how new open-access publishing technologies, such as Open Journal Systems, may assist in stanching the gap in knowledge access, production, and dissemination between universities in the developed and developing world. Ms. Muthayan has worked in several research projects and has led a research team in the evaluation and rationalization of the colleges of education in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. She holds a master’s degree from Rhodes University and a B.A. with majors in international politics and English from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Ndaendelao (Emma) Noongo is a database manager for the Environmental Information Systems Unit of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. She was employed for two years as a researcher at Namibia’s National Programme to Combat Desertification. Her research interests include geographical information systems, remote sensing, and data management issues, particularly in the developing regions. She is also the chair of a committee that aims to build data-sharing policy, data quality guidelines, and spatial data infrastructure in Namibia. Ms. Noongo received a B.Sc. in natural science from the University of Namibia, an M.Sc. in geographical information systems and data management from Durham University (U.K.), and is a Ph.D. candidate in geographical information systems and remote sensing at Joensuu University (Finland). Harlan J. Onsrud is a professor of spatial information science and engineering at the University of Maine. His research focuses on the analysis of legal, ethical, and institutional issues affecting the creation and use of digital spatial databases and the assessment of the social impacts of spatial technologies. He teaches courses in information systems law, cadastral and land information systems, environmental law, and information ethics. Professor Onsrud is the chair of the U.S. National Committee on Data for Science and Technology and currently serves on the Mapping Science Committee of the National Research Council. A licensed engineer and attorney, he is a cochair of the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Legal and Economics Working Group and is immediate past-president of the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science. He recently stepped down as editor-in-chief of the journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA Journal) and has published in numerous engineering, geographic information systems, and legal journals. Jean Luc Poncelet is a Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization area manager in Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Washington, D.C. Since 1986, he has served as a disaster preparedness subregional advisor in San Jose, Costa Rica; Bridgetown,
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium Barbados; St. John’s, Antigua; and Quito, Ecuador. Since joining PAHO in 1986, Dr. Poncelet has participated in major disaster response and humanitarian operations in the Americas and was among the first professionals to actively develop the Supply Information Management System that is now endorsed by the principal UN agencies and by governments. He also helped to establish and strengthen the Latin American and Caribbean Disaster Information Center based in Costa Rica. He has participated in the elaboration of several technical documents related to disaster preparedness, response, and mitigation. He holds a M.D. from the Louvain University, Belgium, and a master’s degree in Public Health degree from Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. T.B. Rajashekar is a principal research scientist at the National Centre for Science Information (NCSI) at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. He is also the Centre’s associate chairman. He holds an associateship in information science from Indian Statistical Institute and a Ph.D. in library and information science from Pune University. At NCSI, his responsibilities include development and management of variety of network-based e-information services for the IISc research community. He has guided the development of SciGate—the IISc Science Information Portal, E-JIS—the IISc e-journal gateway and ePrints@iisc-the IISc eprints archive service. He also teaches in NCSI’s post-graduate training program on Information and Knowledge Management. He has taught and coordinated several national-level workshops on the Internet, search engines, digital libraries, and content management. He was a UNDP fellow at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, during 1992 to 1993 and a visiting scientist at Informatics India Ltd., during 2000. He delivered the prestigious Prof. S.R. Ranaganathan Memorial Lectures in 2001. He has held R&D project grants from several government and private agencies. Some of the projects he has handled include the establishment of LIS-FORM, a discussion forum for L&I services in India; development of K-Library for ICICI-Knowledge Park; relevance ranking of CD-ROM search results; and development of a resource base for public domain software in computer networks and databases and their copyright information. He is a fellow of the Society for Information Science. He is also member of several national and international professional associations. His teaching and research interests include information and knowledge organization, information retrieval, and digital libraries. Mukund Rao is the deputy director (Technology & Systems) for the Earth Observations (EO) System Programme Office in the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Headquarters, Bangalore. He is also involved in the systems and technology assessment/coordination for the Indian EO programme. His research and work experience is in the field of spatial information systems. He has been the key person in the design and definition of the Natural Resources Management System (NRIS) programme of ISRO/DOS and has completed a number of NRIS projects in support of district planning, urban planning, wasteland development, etc. As programme manager of NRIS, he has been involved in furthering the scope and concept of NRIS as a natural resources information repository. Presently, he is the key design person for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and is associated in its strategy development, action plan development and implementation. Mr. Rao is the chair of CEOS Working Group on Education and Training; president (elect) of the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure; vice president of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) and vice chair of IAF’s EO Committee; member of IAF’s Education Committee, IAF’s CLIODN Committee; and member-secretary of the Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia And the Pacific Advisory Committee and participates in many other international fora. Mr. Rao is the recipient of the Hari-Om Ashrams Vikram Sarabhai Young Scientists Award. He has an M.S. in geology from Gujarat University, a master’s in philosophy in remote sensing, and is presently pursuing his Ph.D. in systems design of urban information systems. Jerome H. Reichman is the Bunyan A. Womble Professor of Law at Duke University, where he teaches in the field of contracts and intellectual property. Before coming to Duke he taught at Vanderbilt, Michigan, Florida, and Ohio State universities and at the University of Rome, Italy. He graduated from the University of Chicago (B.A.) and attended Yale Law School, where he received his J.D. degree. Professor Reichman has written and lectured widely on diverse aspects of intellectual property law, including comparative and international intellectual property law and the connections between intellectual property and international trade law. Other recent writings have focused on intellectual property rights in data, the appropriate contractual regime for online delivery of computer
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium programs and other information goods, and new ways to stimulate investment in subpatentable innovation without impoverishing the public domain. Professor Reichman serves as a consultant to the U.S. National Committee for CODATA at the National Academies on the subject of legal protection for databases. He also is an academic advisor to the American Committee for Interoperable Systems; a consultant to the Technology Program of the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development; and was a consultant to the U.N. Development Programme’s flagship project concerning “Innovation, Culture, Biogenetic Resources, and Traditional Knowledge.” D. K. Sahu is a consultant pediatrician and neonatologist. After completing his graduation he founded his own consulting company to guide students in their journey through medical education. He received his doctorate degree in pediatrics from Mumbai University. Presently he is working as the managing editor of the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine and is on the editorial boards of several professional journals. He serves on the Board of Trustees of the Prof. B. A. Bharucha Foundation. He is also a member of numerous professional societies and a fellow of the College of Physician and Surgeons. He is a specialist on the use of information technology in biomedical publishing, online management, and communication. As an independent consultant he has helped many journals in their management. Charlie Schweik is an assistant professor in the Department of Natural Resources Conservation and the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He has three primary areas of interest: environmental policy and management, public information technology and digital government, and the intersection of environmental management and information technology. He has a Ph.D. in public policy from Indiana University, a master’s in public administration from Syracuse University, and an undergraduate degree in computer science. Before academia he worked as a programmer at IBM and as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Energy. Alan Story teaches intellectual property at Kent Law School in Canterbury in the United Kingdom. A Canadian, he was an investigative and political journalist with the Toronto Star (Canada) before making a career change. His earlier research looked at employer speech in U.S. labor law, compensation for banned handguns, and Cuba’s expropriation of U.S. property. His intellectual property writings have examined biopiracy, a proposed trademark for Princess Diana, and copyright and access issues in the U.K. Higher Education Copying Accord. In 2001-2002 he wrote the research study for the U.K. Commission in Intellectual Property Rights on copyright issues in developing countries (see study paper no.5 at http://www.iprcommission.org/graphic/documents/study_papers.htm) and was a cochair of WIPOUT, the international IP counter-essay contest (see http://www.uea.ac.uk/~j013/wipout/index.html). He is now starting research for a book on the economics and politics of intellectual property. Professor Story has an LL.B. (Osgoode Hall Law School, Toronto) and an LL.M. (Cornell Law School). Peter N. Weiss began work with the Strategic Planning and Policy Office of the U.S. National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in March 2000. His responsibilities include domestic and international data policy issues, with a view towards fostering a healthy public/private partnership. Mr. Weiss was a senior policy analyst/attorney in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget from 1991 to 2000. Mr. Weiss analyzed policy and legal issues involving information resources and information technology management, with particular emphasis on electronic data interchange and electronic commerce. He is primary author of the information policy sections of OMB Circular No. A-130, “Management of Federal Information Resources,” and was a member of the Administration’s Electronic Commerce Working Group. (See “A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce.”) From 1990 to 1991 Mr. Weiss was deputy associate administrator for procurement law, Office of Federal Procurement Policy. In this position, he analyzed legal and policy issues affecting the procurement process. Major projects included examination of legal and regulatory issues involving procurement automation, policies, and FAR revisions to facilitate EDI, as well as ADP procurement legal and policy issues. From 1985 to 1990, Mr. Weiss was the assistant chief counsel for procurement and regulatory policy, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration. From 1981 to 1985, Mr. Weiss was in private practice in Washington, D.C. Mr. Weiss holds a B.A. from Columbia University and a J.D.
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium from the Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law. A recent publication is “International Information Policy in Conflict: Open and Unrestricted Access versus Government Commercialization,” in Borders in Cyberspace, Kahin and Nesson, eds., MIT Press, 1997. Nico E. Willemse is a data management consultant for the InfoCom Project under the Environmental Information Systems Unit of the Directorate of Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Tourism of Namibia. He worked for two years as the principal training coordinator for the ACP-EU Fisheries and Biodiversity Management Project in southern Africa. He has a B.Sc. in zoology from the University of Namibia, an M.Sc. in international fisheries management from the Norwegian College of Fishery Science at the University of Tromsø, and is currently enrolled in an M.B.A. program at the University of South Africa. His research includes reconstruction of a time series of marine fisheries catches for Namibia, 1950-2000; major trends in the Namibian marine fisheries, 1950-2000; interpretation of marine fisheries catches for a 50-year time series; the “fishing down marine food webs” phenomenon in Namibia; and economic interpretation of a 50-year time series of marine catches off Namibia. Mikhail Zgurovsky is rector of National Technical University of Ukraine’s “Kiev Polytechnic Institute,” and director of the Institute for Applied System Analysis of the National Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. He is a Doctor of technical sciences and academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Dr. Zgurovsky is a member of the Board on Science and Scientific-Technical Policy, head of the Association of Rectors of Technical Universities of Ukraine, and co-head of the Ukrainian Union of Scientists and Engineers. During 1994-1999, Dr. Zgurovsky was minister of Education of Ukraine and took an active part in working out a number of laws on education. He is a well-known scientist in the field of mathematics and cybernetics. His scientific interests and research embrace methodology of system analysis, the theory of decision making under uncertainty conditions, and analysis and modeling of various complex systems. He is a member of academies of sciences in many countries, senior member of IEEE, member of the Governing Board of UNESCO’s Institute for Information Technologies in Education (Moscow, Russia), the national representative of Ukraine for CODATA, and a member of EDNES. STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS M. G. K Menon (chair) has had a distinguished career as a scientist and policy maker and has held a number of prominent appointments including secretary, Department of Science and Technology, and secretary, Department of Electronics, both in the Government of India; member, Planning Commission; and scientific adviser to the Prime Minister. He served as president of ICSU from 1988 to 1993. He is the recipient of such prestigious awards as Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan in recognition of his distinguished service. He has also been honored with the Abdus Salaam award. He has been a member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha. He has a Ph.D. from Bristol and was educated at Agra and Bombay. He is the president of Leadership for the Environment and Development in India Carlos Correa is the director of the master program on science and technology policy and management at the University of Buenos Aires. He serves as a consultant in the fields of science and technology and intellectual property to many regional and international organizations, including UNCTAD, UNIDO, WHO, FAO, and the Inter-American Development Bank. He served as undersecretary of state for informatics and development in the Argentine national government from 1984 to 1989 and as the director of the U.N. Development Programme’s Regional Programme on Informatics and Microelectronics for Latin America and the Caribbean from 1990 to 1995. He is a member of the Scientific Resource Group on Globalization of WHO and of the International Economics Law Association, and served as a member of the United Kingdom’s International Commission on Intellectual Property Rights.
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium Dialo Diop is a lecturer in microbiology at the Université Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar, Senegal. He received his M.D. from CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière in Paris. After working as a general practitioner in Senegal he returned to Paris to receive additional training in molecular virology. From 2000 to 2001 he served as the cabinet director for the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. He is currently in a Ph.D. program in medical molecular genetics at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. Dr. Diop served as secretary-general of CODATA Senegal. Farouk El-Baz is a research professor and the director of the Center for Remote Sensing at Boston University. He is also an adjunct professor of geology at the Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He received a B.Sc. in chemistry and geology from Ain Shams University, an M.S. degree in geology from the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, and a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Missouri. He was elected a fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences in 1985, and became a member of its Council in 1997. He represents that academy at the Non-Governmental Unit of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Dr. El-Baz is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. He serves on the Board of Trustees of the new Alexandria Library, the Arab Science and Technology Foundation, the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, the Egyptian-American Affairs Council, the Moroccan-American Council, the World Affairs Council of Boston, as well as the editorial boards of several international professional journals. He is a member of many national and international professional societies and a fellow of the Geological Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Explorers Club. Dr. El-Baz has won numerous honors and awards, including NASA’s Apollo Achievement Award, Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, and Special Recognition Award; the University of Missouri Alumni Achievement Award for Extraordinary Scientific Accomplishments; the Certificate of Merit of the World Aerospace Education Organization; the Golden Door Award of the International Institute of Boston; and the Award for Public Understanding of Science and Technology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dominique Foray is currently the directeur de recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), a professor at the University of Paris-Dauphine, and a part-time member of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA-Laxenburg bei Vienna). He received his Ph.D. in 1984 and his habilitation in 1992 from the Université Lumière of Lyon. In 1985 he joined the CNRS as a research fellow. In 1990 he joined the École Centrale Paris as professor of economics and returned to CNRS in 1994. From 1993 to 1995 he was a permanent consultant (part-time) at the OECD (Division for Science, Technology and Industry), where he contributed to the program on National Systems of Innovation. He received the distinction of outstanding research 1993 from CNRS. He was elected a research fellow at the ICER foundation (Italy) for the academic year 1999 and at the Institute for Advanced Study Berlin for the academic year 2000. His research interests include the economics of science and technology, the economics of production and distribution of knowledge, the exploration of the tension between diversity and standardization in the past and in the present, and the analysis of path-dependent processes of economic change. Alexei Gvishiani is the director of the Centre of Geophysical Data Studies and Telematics Applications in the Russian Academy of Sciences and a professor of mathematics at Moscow State Lomonosov University. Dr. Gvishiani holds a Ph.D. in mathematics from Moscow State Lomonosov University and a doctor of sciences from Moscow Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth. Since 1994 he has been the vice-president of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre. His areas of scientific interest include artificial intelligence and applied mathematics in applications related to geophysical data acquisition, processing, and analysis, as well as the Internet and telematics applications for science, education, and the environment. Professor Gvishiani was recently elected vice-president of CODATA. Elizabeth Longworth, principal of Longworth Associates, is a specialist adviser on dispute resolution, information issues, and digital technologies. She is also a specialist on the legal and ethical implications of information technology, the Internet, electronic commerce, electronic banking, international trade finance, and telecommuni-
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Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium cations. Following her admission to the bar as a barrister and solicitor and development of a practice in litigation, Ms. Longworth spent three years in Canada working in information law. Before setting up her own firm in 1991 she practiced in a large corporate law firm in both Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand, in her specialty fields. Ms. Longworth is the independent chair of the New Zealand telecommunication industry’s self-regulatory body on number administration. She was the New Zealand nominee to the UNESCO meetings in Seoul and Monte Carlo in 1998 and is a member of the Sub-Commission on Communication of the New Zealand National Commission of UNESCO. She continues to work for UNESCO (Paris) on the digital divide. Ms. Longworth is the author of a report on cyberspace law, published in New Zealand in 1998 and currently in press by UNESCO (Paris), and of the leading text on New Zealand’s privacy laws. Ms. Longworth graduated with a bachelor of laws from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, and a master of laws from Osgoode Hall, York University, Canada. Lulama Makhubela is the manager of research information for the South African National Research Foundation. Earlier she was a senior lecturer in the Department of Library and Information Science at the University of the Western Cape. She earned her master’s degree in librarianship at the College of Librarianship, Wales, and her Ph.D. in library and information science from the University of the Western Cape. She is a member of the South African CODATA Committee. Erik Sandewall is a professor of computer science and vice-rector at Linköping University, Sweden. Dr. Sandewall is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, and a fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He received his Ph.D. from Uppsala University, after spending a year of doctoral studies at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He has also been a visiting associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He was recently appointed as the chair of the ICSU Press. Mary Waltham is an independent consultant. She was most recently the president and publisher of Nature and the Nature family of journals in the United States, and formerly the managing director and publisher of The Lancet in the United Kingdom. She founded her own consulting company two years ago. Its purpose is to help international scientific, technical, and medical publishers to confront the rapid change that the networked economy poses to their traditional business models, and to develop the new opportunities to build publications that deliver outstanding scientific and economic value. Ms. Waltham has worked at a senior level in science and medical publishing companies across a range of media, which include textbooks, magazines, newsletters, journals, and open learning materials. She served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Community Standards for Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials and the Steering Committee for the Symposium on Electronic Scientific, Technical, and Medical Journal Publishing and Its Implications. Ferris Webster is a professor of oceanography in the College of Marine Studies of the University of Delaware. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in physics at the University of Alberta and his Ph.D. in geophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Beginning at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution he has held a number of scientific positions, becoming senior scientist, chairman of the Physical Oceanography Department, and associate director for research. During this period he spent a sabbatical year at the National Institute of Oceanography in England. Between 1978 and 1982 Dr. Webster served as assistant administrator for research and development of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 1982 he became a senior fellow with the National Research Council. He joined the University of Delaware in 1983, where he serves as the director of the Oceanography Program. His research interests include the role of the ocean in climate change, ocean variability, time series analysis, and oceanographic data management and processing. Since 1994 he has served as the chairman of the Panel on World Data Centers of the International Council for Science. He is also the chair of the ICSU-CODATA ad hoc Working Group on Access to Data and Information, and served as chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data.
Representative terms from entire chapter: