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copyright law. But we are also developing digital rights management technology that uses contracts and licensing and bypasses the public bargain inherent in public copyright laws.

The speakers in this session will also discuss economic models. There is a lot of discussion about the economic models that underpin open-source technologies; the concept of trust as an intangible, but one that now has value; and the economic pressure being exerted on the research community. Difficulties posed by the scarcity of resources for research institutions force them to commercialize ideas and spin them out in entrepreneurial activities. This leads to a real pressure for universities to distinguish themselves as centers of excellence, and the resulting competition puts enormous pressure on the historic ethos of openness.

Indigenous rights are also an issue area that often is overlooked. Communal rights are not accounted for by private rights or as intellectual property rights. But it is not appropriate simply to allow anyone to use communal and indigenous knowledge without consulting the knowledge holders.

There are also the issues with the technology platforms. While the Internet provides an infrastructure that supports intercommunication, we know that telecommunications companies are in crisis. The rollout of broadband mobile Internet services promises new business and pricing models. There are interoperability developments, including technical standards, metadata, and open networks. The good news is that these new economic models recognize collaborative ventures and the need for business and research institutions to work together to share information.

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