• Building on work by special units in the Marine Corps, develop equipment and test procedures that become a part of the decontamination toolkit.

  • Investigate the use of seawater washdown for the decontamination of Navy facilities enjoying ready access to seawater.

  • Undertake agent fate studies to understand the consequences of the interactions of agents with surfaces, coatings, and subsurfaces common to Navy ships and shore facilities before and after washdown.

  • Explore the options for decontaminants emerging from other agencies and the commercial sector in addition to participation in the Joint CBD Program.

Commodity Area: Modeling and Simulation

Findings

  • Modeling and simulation tools are needed that will enable a commander to estimate exposure levels as a function of location and identify the areas that will likely suffer further contamination.

  • Accurate estimates of plume dispersion and deposition of agent are unlikely using real-time computations.

  • The accuracy of models will ultimately be limited by practical considerations, such as uncertainties both in the input data (time and precise location of release, initial plume characteristics) and in the local meteorological conditions.

  • High-fidelity models are a useful tool for predicting flow over and around the superstructure of naval vessels under a variety of meteorological conditions; as such, they provide useful guidance for optimal placement of onboard sensors. Less work has been done on predicting flow at ports and bases.

  • Threats from industrial manufacturing sites or those using industrial chemicals are viable and potentially crippling to operations. Relatively small-scale releases involving toxic industrial chemicals could have a major impact on operational capability if executed with precision.

  • For biological attacks, the time lag between exposure and symptoms and the current lack of reliable, deployable sensors suggest that a model-based system formulated from the perspective of tracking agent dispersion and distribution and the location of the exposed individuals may be the most useful approach for some time.

  • The possibility of genetically altered agents suggests that model-based approaches to identify and track biological attacks will be needed in the long term as well, since the sensors may not be robust to these new agents.

  • Emerging efforts to link chemical fate prediction and/or measurement with operational decision-making tools (battlefield management information systems) is a promising direction for new modeling and simulation efforts.

Recommendations for the Navy

  • Use plume dispersion and deposition models in conjunction with sensor arrays to give an operationally predictive capability rather than trying to improve the accuracy of input plume and meteorological parameters, the details of which are likely to remain uncertain.

  • Invest in high-fidelity modeling of releases in and near ports and bases to guide sensor placement and to form the basis for simplified operational tools.

  • Develop discrete event simulations focused on elucidating the operational bottlenecks during a recovery operation to assist decision making in the face of uncertainty.



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