Appendixes



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Appendixes

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats A Committee and Staff Biographies Miriam E. John, Chair, is vice president for the California Division at Sandia National Laboratories. Dr. John has served in a number of managerial and technical roles for the laboratories, including assignments in the areas of nuclear weapons development, chemical and biological weapons defense program development, systems analysis, and thermal analysis/fluid mechanics research and development; experimental and theoretical studies in heterogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics, and multiphase reacting flow; and postdoctoral work in alternative energy concepts analysis and simulation. She has participated in numerous defense community efforts, including the Department of Defense’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee, the Defense Science Board’s summer and task force studies, and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, as well as serving on the National Research Council’s Board on Army Science and Technology. She was a member of the Department of Energy’s National Commission on Science and Security. Dr. John has served on the California Council for Science and Technology, the Technical Division Advisory Board of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the executive advisory committee for the National Science Foundation’s Science and Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes at North Carolina State University/University of North Carolina. She is also a member of the board of directors of ANSER. She is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. Robert S. Carnes is vice president and cofounder of Biosciences International, Inc., a biomedical consulting firm with operations in the United States and the United Kingdom. Following service as a naval aviator, Dr. Carnes embarked on a

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats career in medicine, serving in a variety of clinical roles including that of director of surgical services, as well as being chair and program director of the Anesthesiology and Critical Care Divisions of the Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia. Capping a 32-year Navy career, he served successive tours with the Marine Corps, including assignments as brigade surgeon, assistant chief of staff, Marine Forces Pacific; and as director, Deep Future Division, Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory. Following retirement from the Navy, Dr. Carnes joined the faculty of Georgetown University, where he was detailed to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as a program manager in the Defense Sciences Office. During his tenure at DARPA, Dr. Carnes developed and ran the Metabolic Engineering Program, a basic science venture in the management and control of cellular metabolism in human cells. Dr. Carnes received a B.S. degree in biology from the University of California at Irvine, and an M.D. from the University of Southern California. He is board certified in anesthesiology, critical care medicine, and aerospace medicine. He completed a fellowship in anesthesia and critical care at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital. His firm’s consultancy spans the spectrum of government, industry, and private foundations with interests in the advancement of the human condition through innovations in the biological sciences. John D. Christie is a senior fellow at the Logistics Management Institute. His background is in Department of Defense acquisition policy and program analysis. From 1989 to 1993, Dr. Christie served as director of Acquisition Policy and Program Integration for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition); in that position he directed the preparation of a comprehensive revision of all defense acquisition policies and procedures, resulting in the cancellation and consolidation of 500 prior separate issuances. (He also prepared comprehensive acquisition program alternatives for the Secretary of Defense that resulted in multibillion-dollar budget reductions.) As a former member of Army Science Board, Dr. Christie was called upon to direct reviews of the Army analytical community and operations research activities for the vice chief of staff; included were reviews of the support of the overall Army acquisition process and its integration with the programming and budgeting process. Dr. Christie has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces, which provided recommendations to improve defense management. With regard to chemical and biological programs, he participated in a review of chemical warfare by the Army Science Board in the 1980s and was responsible for reviewing chemical warfare and biological programs from 1968 to 1971 as director of the Nuclear Weapons and Materials Division in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Systems Analysis). Dr. Christie is a member of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board.

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Robert P. Currier is a research scientist with the Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Dr. Currier’s background is in physical chemistry and chemical engineering. His research interests include gas hydrate production, decontamination and destruction of chemical and biological agents (counterterrorism and battlefield applications), carbon dioxide fixation, and clean coal technology. Prior to joining LANL, Dr. Currier was a process engineer at Cities Service Company and a software development engineer at ChemShare Corporation. His professional affiliations include the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Ceramic Society, and Sigma Xi Research Society. Ruth A. David is president and chief executive officer at Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER), a not-for-profit public service research institute that provides solutions to national and international issues. Dr. David, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, has a background in intelligence and threat assessment. Prior to joining ANSER, she was deputy director for science and technology at the Central Intelligence Agency, where she had leadership responsibilities for supporting and improving the collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence through the research, development, and application of technology. Previously, Dr. David had served in several managerial positions at Sandia National Laboratories. Her technical experience has included digital and microprocessor-based system design, digital signal analysis, adaptive signal analysis, and systems engineering and integration. Dr. David is a member of the National Security Agency Advisory Board, the Defense Science Board, and the Technical Advisory Group of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. She is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. Joseph “Pat” Fitch is program leader for chemical and biological national security at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Dr. Fitch has a background in genomics, biophysics, and electrical engineering. He has also served as LLNL deputy associate director for biology and biotechnology programs and as LLNL director of the Center for Healthcare, in addition to serving as an independent consultant to private industry for medical, computing, and imaging devices. Dr. Fitch holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Purdue University and two B.S. degrees, in physics and engineering sciences, from Loyola College. Frank A. Horrigan retired from the technical development staff for sensors and electronic systems at Raytheon Systems Company. Dr. Horrigan has a background in technologies relevant to military systems, in particular, radar and sensor technologies. A theoretical physicist, he has more than 37 years’ experience in advanced electronics, electro-optics, and advanced information systems. In addition, he has experience in planning and managing industry research and

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats development investments and in projecting future technology growth directions. Dr. Horrigan once served as a NATO fellow at the Saclay Nuclear Research Center in France and has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Panel on Sensors and Electronic Devices. He is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board and Army Research Laboratories Technical Advisory Board. Harry W. Jenkins, Jr., retired major general, U.S. Marine Corps, is director of business development and congressional liaison for ITT Industries, where he is responsible for activities in support of airborne electronic warfare and tactical communications systems between the Navy, Marine Corps, National Guard, and appropriate committees in Congress. His operational background in expeditionary warfare is extensive. During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, General Jenkins served as the commanding general of the Fourth Marine Expeditionary Brigade, directing operational planning, training, and employment of the ground units, aviation assets, and command and control systems in the 17,000-person amphibious force. General Jenkins’s last position before retirement from the U.S. Marine Corps was as director of expeditionary warfare for the Chief of Naval Operations; during that assignment he initiated a detailed program for command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) systems improvements for large-deck amphibious ships and reorganized the Navy’s unmanned aerial vehicle efforts for operations from aircraft carriers and amphibious ships. General Jenkins has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees; he is the current chair of the National Defense Industrial Association Expeditionary Warfare Division. Michael T. Kleinman is associate director of the Air Pollution Effects Laboratory and adjunct professor at the Department in Community and Environmental Medicine at the School of Medicine, University of California at Irvine. His background is in environmental effects and air pollution toxicology. Dr. Kleinman’s research interests include the mechanisms by which inhaled toxic chemicals, alone and in mixtures, interfere with the cardiopulmonary system and with respiratory system defenses, using both laboratory animals and human subjects. Dr. Kleinman has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality Advisory Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Science Advisory Board Health and Economic Effects Subcommittee, and the Human Subjects Research Committee and the Biosafety Committee at the University of California at Irvine. Dr. Kleinman was the co-principal investigator for the National Research Council report entitled Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination (2000). John B. LaPlante, retired vice admiral, U.S. Navy, is an independent consultant and former manager of Department of Defense Business Development at

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats McDermott International, Inc., a worldwide energy services company. His background is in naval (and joint) military operations, particularly in regard to operational logistics. Before retiring from the Navy in 1996, Admiral LaPlante served as director for logistics, J-4, Joint Staff. His military experience also included assignments as commander of Naval Logistics Command Pacific and head of the Amphibious Warfare Branch in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, he commanded all amphibious forces in the Gulf region, a force of some 43 ships and 34,000 men and women. Joshua Lederberg is the Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University. Dr. Lederberg, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, has an extensive background in biological and physical sciences, including bacteriology, biochemistry, biophysics, epidemiology, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, toxicology, and virology. He is a leading geneticist and microbiologist who received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for his work in genetic structure and function in microorganisms (he was also awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1989). Prior to serving as president of the Rockefeller University from 1978 to 1990, Dr. Lederberg served on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin and at the Stanford School of Medicine. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the World Health Organization’s Advisory Health Research Council, the President’s Cancer Panel, and the Congress Technology Assessment Advisory Council. Dr. Lederberg is currently serving on the Committee on International Security and Arms Control. David W. McCall1 retired as director of the Chemical Research Laboratory at AT&T Bell Laboratories (now Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies), where he was responsible for the research, development, and engineering of materials and processes employed in the production of communications systems. Included were a variety of insulating materials and advanced structural materials essential to the long-term integrity of equipment produced. Dr. McCall, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, had a background in physical chemistry and materials engineering. He served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the National Commission on Superconductivity. Dr. McCall was a former member of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. James W. Meyer is retired senior vice president, director of research and development/chief technical officer at the Eastman Kodak Company. Dr. Meyer’s 1   Deceased.

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats background is in advanced technologies. At Kodak, the career of Dr. Meyer, a chemist by training, included research on novel color imaging systems, fundamental studies of image structure and color reproduction, and pioneering work on one-time-use cameras. In addition, he led laboratory efforts in optical and magnetic recording technologies, electronic materials, and novel manufacturing technology. Since retiring from Kodak in 1998, Dr. Meyer has created and led the Technical Advisory Group for the Rochester Museum and Science Center. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, and the Materials Research Institute. William C. Miller, retired rear admiral, U.S. Navy, is academic dean and provost at the U.S. Naval Academy. Dr. Miller returned to his alma mater in 1997 after having served as associate provost for research and economic development at West Virginia University; there he was responsible for providing institution-wide leadership for the university’s research program and for developing and guiding the university’s contribution to economic development throughout the state. In addition, he was a member of the university’s teaching faculty. Before his arrival at West Virginia in 1993, Dr. Miller served in a variety of assignments in the U.S. Navy, the most prominent of which were in the areas of research and development. From 1990 to 1993, Admiral Miller served as the chief of naval research in Washington, D.C., and chief executive of the Office of Naval Research, where he was responsible for the Department of the Navy’s $1.5 billion annual investment in science and technology through universities, industry, and government laboratories. Dr. Miller’s other significant naval assignments included serving as chief executive of the Navy’s corporate laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory; founding director of both the Navy’s low observables (stealth) technology office and the Department of Defense counter low observables office; captain of two naval vessels; and service on the electrical engineering faculty and as executive assistant to the superintendent at the U.S. Naval Academy. David H. Moore is director of medical toxicology programs for the Aerosol and Bio-Defense Sciences Division at Battelle Memorial Institute. His background is in chemical warfare defense. A retired Army colonel, Dr. Moore received his D.V.M. from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine and his Ph.D. in physiology from Emory University School of Medicine. He is a member of the Committee on Toxicology and serves on the Subcommittee on the Toxicity of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate. Dr. Moore served as a member of the advisory group for the National Research Council report entitled Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Analytical Framework for Assessing Risks (2000). He also served as a panel member on the Institute of Medicine report Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response (1999).

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats John H. Moxley III is managing director at North American Health Care Division, Korn/Ferry International. Dr. Moxley, a member of the Institute of Medicine, has a background in internal medicine, military medical issues, health science policy, and cancer research. Prior to joining Korn/Ferry, he held a number of senior positions in academia, government, and commercial industry, including that of dean of both the University of Maryland and the University of California (San Diego) Medical Schools, assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, and senior vice president at American Medical International. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the American Hospital Association board of trustees, the California Medical Association, the American Medical Association, the National Fund for Medical Education, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine. Dr. Moxley is a member of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Army Science and Technology and served as chair for the NRC report entitled Protecting Those Who Serve: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces (2000). Bradley H. Roberts is a research staff member of the Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). His background is in macroscale systems and policy. Dr. Roberts has written widely on the subject of chemical and biological warfare and terrorism, and prior to working with IDA he served as a research fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He is an adjunct professor at the George Washington University Elliott School of International Studies and is chair of the Research Advisory Council and member of the board of trustees of the Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute. In addition, Dr. Roberts is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the Council on Foreign Relations. Charles H. Sinex is a member of the Joint Warfare Analysis Department at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of Johns Hopkins University. His recent assignments have been in the development of methodologies for the Office of Naval Research and the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Advanced Systems and Concepts) for assessing the value of technology investments and in the design and conduct of future warfighting experiments for the U.S. Joint Forces Command. He has also participated in an APL Counter-Proliferation study room to identify critical challenges for the military and civilian counterproliferation programs. Dr. Sinex has also been the logistics program manager for improving linkage models between military forces and logistics systems. Prior to that, he served as supervisor of the Environmental Group, where he was responsible for numerous environmental survey design efforts. Joseph J. Vervier is an executive with ENSCO, Inc., a technology systems engineering, research, and information management company serving both pub-

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats lic and private industries. Mr. Vervier has a background in detection devices, particularly in regard to chemical and biological sensors. Prior to joining ENSCO, Mr. Vervier held numerous high-ranking positions in the Department of the Army, including that of technical director at the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, where he directed research and development on chemical and biological agent detectors, protections systems, and decontamination methods. He has served on numerous scientific and advisory boards, and is a current member of the Board on Army Science and Technology. Richard L. Wade is president of Risk Management Sciences, a private consulting firm; his current clients include the Princess, Norwegian, and Orient Cruise Lines, as well as many industrial clients. Dr. Wade’s background is in risk mitigation and threat assessment. His career has included work as a regulator, a professor, and a consultant. Dr. Wade has served as the head of public health agencies (Seattle, Washington; State of Minnesota; and State of California), and taught at the University of Minnesota and the University of California. His work has also included local, state, federal, and international environmental and health issues. Currently, Dr. Wade is an adjunct associate professor of medicine at the University of California at San Francisco Medical Center and maintains an active international private practice in environmental health. In 1990, he received the American Public Health Association’s lifetime achievement award. Michael A. Wartell is chancellor at Indiana University–Purdue University-Fort Wayne. His background is in defense issues relating to chemical and biological defense and Department of Defense policies and doctrine. In the 1980s he was involved in the Army Science Board, where issues of chemical and biological defenses were part of ad hoc and summer study groups in which he participated. In 1997, he rejoined the Army Science Board and is an ex officio member of the Defense Science Board. He also serves as chair of the Defense Intelligence Agency Science and Technology Advisory Board. Dr. Wartell was the co-principal investigator for the National Research Council report entitled Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination (2000). George M. Whitesides is Mallinckrodt Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University. Dr. Whitesides, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has a background in biological and physical sciences, including materials science, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. He is a leading chemist who received the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1998. His research interests include surface chemistry, materials science, self-assembly, capillary electrophoresis, organic solid state, molecular virology, directed ligand discovery, and protein chemistry. Dr. Whitesides has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees,

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats including most recently, a biological warfare defense study for the Department of Defense. He is currently a member of the Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century. Staff Ronald D. Taylor currently is on assignment to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In July 2003, Dr. Taylor became director of the Office of Studies and Analysis in the Science and Technology Directorate at DHS. He also serves as the executive secretary for the Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee. Dr. Taylor has been director of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board since 1995. In 2002 he assumed collateral duties coordinating National Research Council work with the intelligence community as well as coordinating NRC work on homeland security. He joined the National Research Council in 1990 as program officer, then senior program officer, with the Board on Physics and Astronomy and in 1994 became associate director of the Naval Studies Board. During his tenure at the National Research Council, Dr. Taylor has overseen the initiation and production of more than 40 studies focused on the application of science and technology to problems of national interest. Many of these studies address national security and national defense issues. From 1984 to 1990 Dr. Taylor was a research staff scientist with Berkeley Research Associates working on-site at the Naval Research Laboratory on projects related to the development and application of charged particle beams. Prior to 1984, he held both teaching and research positions in several academic institutions, including assistant professor of physics at Villanova University, research associate in chemistry at the University of Toronto, and instructor of physics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Dr. Taylor holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in physics from the College of William and Mary and a B.A. in physics from Johns Hopkins University. In addition to a specialty in science policy, Dr. Taylor’s scientific and technical expertise is in the areas of atomic and molecular collision theory, chemical dynamics, and atomic processes in plasmas. He has authored or coauthored numerous professional scientific journal papers and technical reports. In 2002 Dr. Taylor received the National Academies Individual Distinguished Service Award and Group Distinguished Service Award for his role as study director of the report Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002). In 2003 he received the Department of the Navy Superior Public Service Award from the Chief of Naval Operations for his service since 1995 as director of the Naval Studies Board. Charles F. Draper is acting director of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. He joined the National Research Council in 1997 as program officer, then senior program officer, with the Naval Studies Board and in 2003

OCR for page 137
Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats became associate director. During his tenure with the Naval Studies Board, Dr. Draper has served as the responsible staff officer on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy with its scientific, technical, and strategic planning. His recent efforts include topics on network-centric operations, theater missile defense, mine warfare, and nonlethal weapons. Prior to joining the Naval Studies Board, he was the lead mechanical engineer at Sensytech, Inc. (formerly S.T. Research Corporation), where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small-satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.