B
Chemical and Biological Agents and Their Effects

The tables in this appendix are reprinted from a previous National Research Council report, Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination.1 They provide brief descriptions of both chemical agents (Tables B.1 through B.3) and biological agents (Tables B.4 through B.7), as follows:

1  

National Research Council. 2000. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination, Board on Army Science and Technology, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., Tables 2-5 through 2-11.



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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats B Chemical and Biological Agents and Their Effects The tables in this appendix are reprinted from a previous National Research Council report, Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination.1 They provide brief descriptions of both chemical agents (Tables B.1 through B.3) and biological agents (Tables B.4 through B.7), as follows: Table B.1 Inhalation/Respiratory Agents Table B.2 Dermal Absorption Agents Table B.3 Dermal Necrotic Agents Table B.4 Inhalation/Respiratory Agents Table B.5 Ingestion Agents Table B.6 Agents Absorbed via Mucous Membranes or the Skin Table B.7 Arthropod Vectors 1   National Research Council. 2000. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination, Board on Army Science and Technology, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., Tables 2-5 through 2-11.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.1 Inhalation/Respiratory Agents Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose (mg-min/m3 except where otherwise noted) Rate of Action Phosgene Vapor Causes fluid buildup in the lungs that can cause drowning ICt50 = 1,600 Delayed, although immediate irritation in high concentrations At low concentrations, no effects for three hours or more Diphosgene Vapor Causes fluid buildup in the lungs that can cause drowning ICt50 = 1,600 (at rest) Delayed, although immediate irritation in high concentrations At low concentrations, no effects for three hours or more Tabun Vapor Cessation of breath ICt50 = 300 (at rest) ECt50 = no existing estimates ECt50 = no existing estimates (severe effects)a ECt50 = 0.9 (mild effects)a ECt50 = 2-3b Very rapid Sarin Vapor Incapacitation; cessation of breath ICt50 = 75 (at rest); 35 (mildly active) ECt50 = no existing estimates (threshold)a ECt50 = 35 (severe effects)a ECt50 = 2 (mild effects)a ECt50 = 3b Very rapid

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Soman Vapor Incapacitation; cessation of breath ICt50 = 75-300 (at rest) ECt50 = no existing estimates (threshold)a ECt50 = 35 (severe effects)a ECt50 = no existing estimates (mild effects)a ECt50 = 1-2b Very rapid GF Vapor Incapacitation; cessation of breath ECt50 = no existing estimates (threshold) ECt50 = no existing estimates (severe effects) ECt50 = no existing estimates (mild effects) Very rapid VX Vapor Incapacitation; cessation of breath ICt50 = 50 (at rest); 24 (mildly active) ECt50 = no existing estimates (threshold)a ECt50 = 25 (severe effects)a ECt50 = 0.09 (mild effects)a ECt50 = 1-2b Very rapid Hydrogen cyanide Vapor Interferes with the body’s utilization of oxygen; accelerates rate of breathing ICt50 varies with concentration ECt50 – 1,500 Very rapid; incapacitation can occur within 1 to 2 minutes of exposure to an incapacitating or lethal dose, and death can occur within 15 minutes of receiving a lethal dose

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose (mg-min/m3 except where otherwise noted) Rate of Action Cyanogen chloride Vapor Choking, irritation, slows breathing ICt50 = 7,000 Very rapid Arsine Vapor Damages blood, liver, and kidneys ICt50 = 2,500 Effects delayed from 2 hours to 11 days Distilled mustard Vapor Inflammation of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, and lungs ICt50 = 150 ECt50 = no existing estimates (threshold)a ECt50 = 200 (moderate temperature, severe effects)a ECt50 ≥ 50 (mild effects)a ECt50 = 10-1,000b Effects delayed for 4 to 6 hours Nitrogen mustard Vapor Incapacitation N/Ac Effects delayed for ~12 hours Mustard-T mixture Vapor Incapacitation N/Ac Delayed action not well known Lewisite Vapor Incapacitation ECt50 = 1,500 Rapid acting Mustard-lewisite mixture Vapor Incapacitation N/Ac Rapid acting skin irritation, blisters in 13 hours

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Phenyldichloroarsine Vapor Incapacitation N/Ac Rapid acting Ethyldichloroarsine Vapor Incapacitation ICt50 = 5-10 Rapid acting nose/throat irritation, blisters in 12 hours Methyl-dichloroarsine Vapor Incapacitation ICt50 = 25 Rapid acting nose/throat irritation, blisters in several hours Phosgene oxime Vapor Coughing, choking, chest tightness on exposure; possible cyanosis following pulmonary edema ICt50 = unknown; lowest irritant concentration after a 10-second exposure is 1 mg/m3; effects of the agent become unbearable after 1 minute at 3 mg/m3 Rapid acting   aNATO, 1996; NRC, 1997. bAli et al., 1997. cExposure via this route is unlikely; no information was found. SOURCES: Boyle, 1998; U.S. Army, 1995; Army et al., 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.2 Dermal Absorption Agents Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose (mg-min/m3except where otherwise noted) Rate of Action Tabun (GA) Liquid; vapor N/Aa ED50 = no existing estimates Very rapid Sarin (GB) Liquid N/Aa ED50 = no existing estimates Very rapid; may be lethal within 15 minutes after absorption Soman (GD) Liquid N/Aa ED50 = no existing estimates Very rapid; may be lethal within 15 minutes after absorption GF Liquid N/Aa ED50 = no existing estimates Very rapid VX Liquid N/Aa ED50 = 5 mg/70-kg manb ED50 = 1 mgc Very rapid; may be lethal within 15 minutes after absorption Distilled mustard Liquid Inflammation of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, and lungs ID50 = 2,000 by skin; 200 by eye ED50 = no existing estimatesb ED50 = 10 Tgc Effects delayed for 4 to 6 hours Nitrogen mustard Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 200 by eye; 9,000 by skin Effects delayed for ~12 hours

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats Mustard-T mixture Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = very low Delayed action not well known Lewisite Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = less than 300 by eye; more than 1,500 by skin ED50 = 15 Tg Rapid acting Mustard-lewisite mixture Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 200 by eye; 1,500-2,000 by skin Rapid acting skin irritation; blisters in 13 hours Phenyldichloroarsine Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 16 as vomiting agent; 1,800 as blister Rapid acting Ethyldichloroarsine Liquid Incapacitation N/Aa Rapid acting nose/throat irritation; blisters in 12 hours Methyldichloroarsine Liquid Incapacitation N/Aa Rapid acting nose/throat irritation; blisters in several hours aUnlikely exposure via this route; no information found. bAli et al., 1997. cNRC, 1997. SOURCES: Boyle, 1998; NATO, 1996; U.S. Army, 1995; U.S. Army et al., 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.3 Dermal Necrotic Agents Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose Rate of Action Distilled mustard Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 2,000 by skin; 200 by eye ED50 = no existing estimatesa ED50 = 10 μgb Effects delayed for 4 to 6 hours Nitrogen mustard Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 200 by eye; 9,000 by skin Effects delayed for ~12 hours Mustard-T mixture Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = very low Delayed action not well known Mustard-lewisite mixture Liquid Incapacitation ID50 = 200 by eye; 1,500-2,000 by skin Rapid acting skin irritation; blisters in 13 hours aNATO, 1996; NRC, 1997. bAli et al., 1997. SOURCES: Boyle, 1998; U.S. Army, 1995; U.S. Army et al., 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.4 Inhalation/Respiratory Agents Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose Onset Time (days) Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Aerosol 75% morbidity; 80% mortality 8,000-50,000 spores 1-5 Plague (Yersinia pestis) Aerosol   100-500 organisms 2-3 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Aerosol 80% morbidity; 35% mortality 10-50 organisms 2-3 Q fever (Coxiella burneti) Aerosol 70% morbidity; <1% mortality 1-10 organisms 14-21 Smallpox Aerosol 30-35% mortality 10-100 organisms 12 Venezuelan equine encephalitis Aerosol 90% morbidity; <5% mortality 10-100 organisms 1-5 Dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae) Aerosol 25% mortality 10-100 organisms 1-7 Cholera (Vibrio comma) Aerosol 15-90% mortality 1,000,000 organisms 1-5 Brucellolis (Brucella suis) Aerosol 2% fatality 10-100 organisms 5-21   SOURCES: Ali et al., 1997; Boyle, 1998; U.S. Air Force, 1997; U.S. Army et al., 1990. TABLE B.5 Ingestion Agents Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose Onset Time (days) Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Ingestion 75% morbidity; 80% mortality 1,000 spores 1-7 Cholera (Vibrio comma) Ingestion 15-90% mortality >107organisms 1-5 Dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae) Ingestion 25% mortality 10-100 organisms 1-7 Q Fever (Coxiella burneti) Ingestion 70% morbidity; <1% mortality 1-10 organisms 14-21 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Ingestion 80% morbidity; 35% mortality rate N/Aa 2-3 aInformation, if known, was not readily available during the course of the study. SOURCES: Ali et al., 1997; Boyle, 1998; U.S. Air Force, 1997; U.S. Army et al., 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.6 Agents Absorbed via Mucous Membranes or the Skin Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose Onset Time Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Direct contact with contaminated material 25% mortality N/Aa N/Aa Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Inoculation of skin or mucous membranes with blood or tissue fluids of infected animals 80% morbidity; 35% mortality rate 10-50 organisms N/Aa Brucellosis (Brucella suis) Through abraded and possibly intact skin N/Aa N/Aa N/Aa Ebola/Marburg Through abrasion or via conjunctiva; possibly direct contact with blood or other tissues N/Aa N/Aa N/Aa Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Direct contact with animal or human tissues and blood N/Aa N/Aa N/Aa aInformation, if known, was not readily available during the course of the study. SOURCES: Ali et al., 1997; Boyle, 1998; Johnson, 1990; LeDuc, 1989; Johnson, 1990; Mikolich and Boyce, 1990; U.S. Air Force, 1 997; U.S. Army, 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats TABLE B.7 Arthropod Vectors Agent Mode of Delivery Effect Effective Dose Onset Time (days) Plague (Yersinia pestis) Fleas 25-100% mortality 1-103 organisms 2-7 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Bites of infected deerflies, mosquitoes, or ticks 80% morbidity; 35% mortality 1-103 organisms 1-10 Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsi) Ticks 7-20% fatal N/Aa 3-10 Yellow fever Ticks <5% mortality N/Aa 3-6 Rift Valley fever Mosquitoes <1% mortality N/Aa 3-12 Venezuelan equine encephalitis Variety of mosquitoes 90% morbidity; <5% mortality 1-103 organisms 4-20 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Ticks N/Aa N/Aa N/Aa aInformation, if known, was not readily available during the course of the study. SOURCES: Ali et al., 1997; Boyle, 1998; LeDuc, 1989; U.S. Air Force, 1997; U.S. Army et al., 1990.

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Naval Forces’ Defense Capabilities Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Threats REFERENCES Ali, J., L. Rodrigues, and M. Moodie. 1997. U.S. Chemical-Biological Defense Guidebook. Alexandria, Va.: Jane’s Information Group. Boyle, R.E. 1998. U.S. Chemical Warfare: A Historical Perspective. LG-1597. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Johnson, K.M. 1990. “Marburg and Ebola Viruses.” In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd Ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 1303-1306. LeDuc, J.W. 1989. “Epidemiology of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses.” Reviews of Infectious Diseases 11(Supp.4): S730-S725. Mikolich, D.J., and J.M. Boyce. 1990. “Brucella Species.” In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd Ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 1735-1742. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). 1996. NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defense Operations. Part III. Chemical. AMed P-6(B). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimate for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. U.S. Air Force. 1997. USAF Operations in a Chemical and Biological (CB) Warfare Environment, CB Hazards. Air Force Handbook 32-4014, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Air Force. U.S. Army. 1995. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Chemical Casualty Care Office. U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force. 1990. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds. Army Field Manual 3-9, Navy Publication P-467, and Air Force Manual 355-7. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army/Department of the Navy/Department of the Air Force.