• Research Need 9: Characterize the distribution of social and psychological resources in different older populations and investigate whether their effects on health vary by race and ethnicity.

  • Research Need 10: Determine the lifetime effects of prejudice and discrimination on health using longitudinal data and a framework that centers on stress and its effects.

  • Research Need 11: Evaluate the effects of prejudice and discrimination on the health of minorities other than blacks.

  • Research Need 12: Study populations of different racial and ethnic groups to assess the connection between health and the stresses that accumulate over a lifetime.

  • Research Need 13: Clarify how biopsychosocial factors affect health outcomes over time in racial and ethnic groups of middle-aged and older adults.

  • Research Need 14: Identify differences in health care—access, use, and quality—for racial and ethnic minority populations other than blacks.

  • Research Need 15: Determine the reasons for differences in health care quality, focusing on the contributions of geographic variation, characteristics of health care institutions, provider behavior and stereotyping, and patient adherence to recommendations for care.

  • Research Need 16: Place particular emphasis on panel studies that follow cohorts in order to study differences in health among racial and ethnic groups over the life course.

  • Research Need 17: Measure the use of complementary and alternative therapies by racial and ethnic groups.

  • Research Need 18: Characterize long-term trends (and possible lags) in the effects of changing social policy—federal, state, and local—on health differences and on public health.

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