A drug for killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth. For the purposes of this report, antimicrobials include antibiotics and antivirals.

Antiretroviral Drugs:

Substances used to kill or inhibit the multiplication of retroviruses such as HIV. There are four classes of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.


Having no symptoms.


Also known as lamivudine. Also known as ZDV. An antiretroviral drug in the class of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Used to treat HIV/AIDS.

CD4 (T4) or CD4+ Cells:

1. A type of T cell involved in protecting against viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. These cells normally orchestrate the immune response, signaling other cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. Also known as T helper cells. 2. HIV’s preferred targets are cells that have a docking molecule called “cluster designation 4” (CD4) on their surfaces. Cells with this molecule are known as CD4-positive (or CD4+) cells. Destruction of CD4+ lymphocytes is the major cause of the immunodeficiency observed in AIDS, and decreasing CD4+ lymphocyte levels appear to be the best indicator for developing opportunistic infections. Although CD4 counts fall, the total T cell level remains fairly constant through the course of HIV disease, due to a concomitant increase in the CD8+ cells. The ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells is therefore an important measure of disease progression. See CD8 (T8) Cells; Immunodeficiency.


A glycoprotein found especially on the surface of killer T cells that usually function to facilitate recognition by killer T cell receptors of antigens complexed with molecules of a class that are found on the surface of most nucleated cells and are the product of genes of the major histocompability complex.


A spherical bacterium.


An antimicrobial drug. A bactericidal combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole that is used to prevent and treat infections in patients with HIV/AIDS.


A herpes virus that is a common cause of opportunistic diseases in persons with AIDS and other persons with immune suppression. Most adults in the United States have been infected by CMV; however the

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