Pertaining to the kidneys.


An antimicrobial drug. It is used for the treatment of tuberculosis.


An antiretroviral drug in the class of protease inhibitors (PI). Used to treat HIV/AIDS. Usually used in combination with another protease inhibitor, lopinavir, to “boost” the effect of lopinavir.


As related to HIV infection, the proportion of persons who have evidence of HIV infection in their blood at any given time.


Having symptoms of a disease.


The ability to cause birth defects. Teratogenicity is a potential side effect of some drugs, such as efavirenz, a drug to treat HIV/ AIDS.


A genus containing the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

Tuberculosis (TB):

A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB bacteria are spread by airborne droplets expelled from the lungs when a person with active TB coughs, sneezes, or speaks. Exposure to these droplets can lead to infection in the air sacs of the lungs. The immune defenses of healthy people usually prevent TB infection from spreading beyond a very small area of the lungs. If the body’s immune system is impaired because of HIV infection, aging, malnutrition, or other factors, the TB bacteria may begin to spread more widely in the lungs or to other tissues. TB is seen with increasing frequency among HIV-infected persons. Most cases of TB occur in the lungs (pulmonary TB). The disease may also occur in the larynx, lymph nodes, brain, kidneys, or bones (extrapulmonary TB). Extrapulmonary TB infections are more common among persons living with HIV.

Undetectable Virus:

The threshold at which measurements of plasma HIV RNA levels (viral load) are not detectable depends on the assay used. Common thresholds are <400 copies/ml or <50 copies/ml.


An antimicrobial drug used to treat viruses. This drug can be used to treat cytomegalovirus infections that people with HIV/AIDS may develop. It does not cure these infections.

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